Papers were reviewed in order to reveal the developmental process of the environmental education concept from the Stockholm Declaration (1972) to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and to clarify the principle of education for sustainable society as a current phase of environmental education. Among the many issues, the author emphasizes the need for education on local environmental pollution, awareness of the assailant versus sufferer relationships in every environmental problem, participation in action and movements against global environmental crisis, and global partnerships between assailants, mostly in ‘developed’ countries, and sufferers, mainly in ‘developing’ countries, against economic globalization. The urgent goals of education for sustainable society are considered to be the eradication of poverty, diseases, violence, discrimination, and social injustice in ‘developing’ countries, most of which have been caused by globalization and the ‘developed’ countries. The conventional environmental ethic is considered as a combination of the inter-generation ethic and the space ship ethic. The former says that the present generation is the assailant of the future generation while the latter states that all people on earth are equally crew members of the earth as a space ship. These two ethics ignore the existence of assailants and sufferers in both present and future generations and place the sufferers in the present generation under a false charge as assailants of the future generation. A new environmental ethic should be established on the basis of the inter-generation ethic and an alternative to the space ship ethic, namely the inter-area ethic that declares the existence of assailants and sufferers in both present and future generations.
Physical properties and chemical reactivities of an unknown chemical compound can be predicted by the thermodynamic quantities of that compound. There are so many isomers and congeners among dioxin analogues that it is impossible to measure the thermodynamic properties of all such compounds. In this case, we can compute these quantities based on quantum chemistry. This report summarizes the thermodynamic properties of dioxins based on computational chemistry and toxicity based on the QSAR method. Equations predicting PXDD and PXDF free energy were also derived using a quantum and deductive chemical approach.
Growth characters of 6 common fungi found on window sashes under conditions of condensation in winter and drying in summer were studied. Most of the fungi studied are recognized as being able to grow under severe environmental conditions. In particular, Cladosporium and Aureobasidium, which are predominant on sashes, were able to grow not only on media with 15% NaCl, but also at temperatures of from 5 to 35 °C. Pseudotaeniolina globosa, identified in this study and being at very low counts in indoor and outdoor environments, was the most characteristic fungus on sashes and had a wide range of growth in terms of temperature and water activity.