The fungal flora in the house dust of dwellings was examined in both the winter and summer of 2006. The xerophilic fungi, Aspergillus restrictus and Wallemia, which grow in house dust, were markedly abundant as well as Cladosporium and Penicillium. The average numbers of fungi detected were larger in tatami dust than in carpet dust or in flooring dust. Floor materials, for example whether the carpet was wool or synthetic, affected the fungal contamination of house dust. Fungal contamination was found to be less on upper floors, in houses located on flat land than on the first floor or on sloping land. More fungal contamination was detected in older dwellings of 26 years or more than in newer ones of 25 years or less. The fungal count in the house dust of rooms with daily use of air-conditioning in summer and heating in winter was about half of that in rooms rarely heated or air-conditioned. Factors removing moisture from the room atmosphere and floor were thought to reduce the fungal contamination of house dust.
Climate change in urban areas is affected by global trends such as global warming and by local trends such as the heat-island phenomenon. Heat islands are formed in urban areas by urbanization. The present paper analyzed winter (February) climate change in Osaka City, central Japan, during the period from 1883 (or 1890) to 2006 using the monthly means or totals of six climate parameters. During these 124 (or 117) years, the monthly means of daily mean, maximum and minimum air temperature increased by 2.7°C, 1.6°C, and 3.6°C, respectively, while the relative humidity decreased by 14%. Rainfall and duration of sunshine showed stable trends with large fluctuations. The relative humidity decreased at a very low rate (5.0% per 100 years) in 1883-1950, but at a higher rate (16% per 100 years) in 1951-2006. Regression of the three temperature parameters and relative humidity to rainfall or sunshine values suggested that the trend difference in temperature and humidity change from the middle of the 20th century cannot be explained by only local natural factors such as rainfall and sunshine, but is mainly due to urbanization.
Unique physiological functions of DHA-bound phospholipids, comparable with those of fish oil (triglyceride), have been reported in several papers. We investigated the effect of DHA-bound phospholipids (squid-PL) on PAF receptor in the present study. We found that squid-PL reduced the incidence of PAF binding to PAF receptor by 63% (200μg/ml). We further found that the PL concentration of 1000g/ml, reduced PAF-induced platelet aggregation by 55%. These physiological effects of squid-PL were able to reduce the fatality rate in mouse following PAF administration. An antagonistic effect of squid-PL against PAF receptor was thus demonstrated.
The present document summarizes the achievements of Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences in the field of water quality examination and water research from 1945 to ca. 1960. The document covers investigative research related to water quality examination, water for industrial use, well water, underground water, river water, harbor water and plant effluent. Emphasis is given to the achievements of research and investigation in the field of river water pollution control.