The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was developed as an index to evaluate outdoor thermal environment related to health impacts and thermal comfort and applicable to all climates, seasons, temporal and spatial scales. Although it was conceived by the International Society of Biometeorology and has been developed for about 10 years, it has not been widely used in Japan. This paper outlines the background of the development of the UTCI, the definition of the UTCI, the multi-node thermo-physiological model and the derivation of UTCI, and the calculation method of the UTCI.
The numerical value of Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature WBGT is lower than the air temperature in the summer hot environment. This index does not necessarily agree with a human sense in living environment. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new WBGT index which meets a human sense. Gagge (1976) proposed the straight line giving equal WBGT on the psychrometric chart. The numerical value of WBGT is the temperature at relative humidity 100% on the chart. The humidity 100% as the standard was changed and the temperature in case of relative humidity 50% was defined as new index WBGT50. When WBGT is 31°C after a relation between WBGT and WBGT50 was calculated, WBGT50 will be 36°C. The proper numerical value is indicated to show danger of heat exhaustion, and this index is thought to be useful.
The onset mechanism of cerebral infarction is not clear and no preventive method has been established. This time, we classified the first severe cases of cerebral infarction that received rt-PA therapy into embolic (group A) and thrombotic (group B), and investigated the time and the atmospheric pressure distribution pattern of the onset. Then, the difference in the onset between the two groups was statistically analyzed. Between July and September, when the average temperature was highest, the number of the group B was significantly higher (p=0.0248, Fisher's exact probability test, the same hereafter). In the time zone, the group B was significantly more abundant between 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. (p=0.0357), and the group A was significantly more abundant between 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. and between 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. (p=0.007, p=0.0467). As for the atmospheric pressure distribution pattern, the other high-pressure type except for anticyclone belt type and migratory anticyclone type was significantly more common in the group B (p=0.0166). The main causes of cerebral infarction are arteriosclerosis and arrhythmia, but there is a possibility that thrombosis/embolism may be suddenly formed due to dehydration and so on by the influence of external environment such as weather change and life rhythm. Guidance such as timely and appropriate drinking water supply will be necessary to prevent dehydration. It is expected to be further investigated to establish preventive measures.
Expansion of remarkable habitat of Argyreus hyperbius is also widely known as an influence of global warming. On the other hand, recently it is said that an increase in pansies, which is a kind of food grass of this species, is one factor. However, there are few research papers demonstrating that relationship. Therefore, in this research, the expansion of the habitat of Argyreus hyperbius was considered from the viewpoint of increasing the minimum temperature in winter and expanding the cultivation area of pansy. As a result, with the gardening boom in the early 1990's, it became clear that the area where pansies were grown remarkably expanded, suggesting the possibility of promoting expansion of the habitat of Argyreus hyperbius.