A truck driving simulator was constructed to understand the complicated state of undergoing interaction of control systems, human, and trucks during automatic platooning. A full-scale cabin of truck, a gap distance controller for longitudinal and lateral directions, steering equipment, a seat suspension, and a sound generator based on actual-vehicle driving are integrated into a driving simulator. It can be used to conduct a feasibility study on the different reproduced situation of automatic platooning. The experimental studies for 12 subjects were executed in the two trucks following mode, and in the conditions of only braking, only steering, and braking plus steering. The results indicated that the braking operation with override control is an effective resolution for emergent avoidance during the automatic platooning of truck.
We propose a method to estimate camera motion and road width (distance to buildings in both ides) from videos taken in urban environments. This facilitates applications like localization by educing the search space. The camera motion between frames is estimated. We propose that rotation nd translation are independently estimated. The advantage of this method is more robust and faster rocessing. A plane is fitted to the wall in each side, and the distance is estimated using the quation of a homography induced by a plane. The experiments showed this method could iscriminate different kinds of roads successfully.[This abstract is not included in the PDF]
3D models play a vital role in intelligent transport systems and in geographic survey. Several methods are available for construction of such models. However, the challenge lies when requirement is to build a 3D model in world coordinates in urban environments because of poor availability of GPS signal. We deal with such challenge by capturing GPS data at several positions along with range images at those positions. The range images are aligned in local coordinate system using fast ICP algorithm. GPS data at selected positions with high probability of position estimation accuracy is used to estimate the transformation between GPS position estimates and scan center positions obtained from simultaneous alignment of range images. The obtained transformation is used to transform all the aligned 3D points into world coordinates. To evaluate the correctness of constructed model, various evaluation methods based on orientation of building facades, positioning on aerial photos and overlapping of neighboring regions are proposed. The evaluation results confirm the correctness of the global alignment.[This abstract is not included in the PDF]
Recently, hybrid cars and electric vehicles have come into wide use, therefore acoustical nvironment inside /outside the cars have considerably changed. In this study, the interior noises in n electric passenger car have investigated compared with ones in a gasoline car. Using a gasoline ar and an electric car, the interior noises were measured under the conditions including not only teady running but also acceleration/deceleration running in a proving ground. To investigate the ubjective impression on the running noise by laboratory experiment, the 3-dimensional sound imulation technique was applied. Using this system, natural aural impression can be realized in an nechoic chamber. In the simulated sound field using field measurement recordings, subjective udgments were performed.
This paper deals with development of a security brake system for improvement safety of brake systems in the energy-saving ITS project. In former development, a redundant brake system had parallel placed with a main brake system for keeping a safety in automatic platooning experiment. However, these main and redundant brake systems have the same-type EBS computer. In this paper,safety brake as a third brake system is developed by mechanical type system for safety improvement in automatic platooning experiments.
This paper deals with a feasibility study of sensor systems for automatic driving in a private road. The energy-saving ITS project has been researching for the automatic platooning driving of heavy-duty vehicles using several sensing systems. In this research, a usability of the sensing system is examined by a long term measurement environment. Therefore, the sensing system for the long term measurement is constructed in a trailer-type heavy duty vehicle. The sensing systems work during the vehicle running in the private road.computer. In this paper, safety brake as a third brake system is developed by mechanical type system for safety improvement in automatic platooning experiments.
In the NEDO energy-saving ITS project, in order to make a regional area applicable to evaluation, the mesocopic CO2 emissions model (meso-EM) is developed. The input data of the meso-EM is the simplified running pattern to estimate CO2 emissions. A certain kind of ITS applications cause the change of the running pattern which is not reflected in the simplified running pattern. The change of the running pattern causes the change of CO2 emission. The methodology which enables the estimation of the change of CO2 emission at low cost for such ITS applications was proposed and verified, and it was confirmed that the estimation accuracy is high enough.
It is an urgent task to reduce the amount of CO2 emission from road traffics. We are constructing a system to prompt general citizens to perform eco-friendly travel behavior by distributing and showing “Regional Traffic Information" taking advantage of information and communication technologies. Traffic situations are observed at several points by using existing monitoring cameras etc., and the whole situation of the targeted area is estimated by integrating and interpolating themselves and other statistic data. From this CO2 emission is calculated, visualized with VR technology, and displayed on information terminals of the citizens. In Dec. 2012, the field operation test started in Kashiwa City in Chiba Prefecture to explore the acceptability of this system and how their travel behavior changes from usual by this system.
In this paper, we report a preliminary survey for development of a system which raises citizens'wareness of environment and promotes eco-friendly traffic behavior by provision in a comprehensive ay for regional transport information which varies hour to hour. In particular, we carried out uestionnaire survey about daily use of transportation to citizens who live in the target area of rovision and its surrounding area. Finally, we consider an effective way of provision and contents of it.
“Nagasaki EV&ITS Project", a practical penetration and operation project of EV and ITS which Nagasaki Prefecture is promoting in Goto islands area, Nagasaki, started from introduction of 100 EVs and introduced quick chargers and ITS spots as infrastructures for EV stress-free environment. The aim of the project is revitalization of isolated islands area through construction of“Driving Tours of the Future"model. In this paper, the latest progress of the project is reported, and various directly and indirectly related projects and actions starting with the EV&ITS project as a chance are introduced.
For three days from September 2 to 4 in 2012, students and researchers from three universities as Univ. of Tokyo, Nagasaki University and Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science gathered to a summer school in Goto islands, Nagasaki. This was a trial of field experience workshop of advanced technology introduction by uniting local students and students from external areas as Tokyo. This article introduces the report, circumstances, targets, and significance of the school.
Tourist information sites are supplying town strangers with valuable mobility support information,while they need more ICT in making full use of visitor's data from viewpoints of marketing analysis and to assist business improvement of site officers. This paper proposes some ideas to introduce ICT at tourist information sites in site-friendly forms to aim at promoting stop-by round trip tourism for economical area activation and at applying also for natural hazard situations, through analysis of rural and city tourist information sites.
After the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, heavy traffic congestion continued in Tokyo for a long time. In this study, the traffic situation in Tokyo following the earthquake is reproduced using a traffic simulation model, and the factors generating heavy traffic congestion are clarified. Moreover, traffic regulation scenarios in the center of Tokyo in the case of a disaster are examined using the simulation model, and their effectiveness is analyzed.
An understanding of variability in travel behavior is essential for both analytical and operational processes. Conventional methods rely on interpersonal variability from one-day data. However, it has been found that the intrapersonal variability may constitute a substantial proportion in the total variability. The availability of electronic toll collection (ETC) opens possibilities to collect multiday individual data. This paper uses the multiday ETC data on Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway in 2010- 2011 to examine the interpersonal and intrapersonal variability of the daily travel behavior. This long term data can be used to observe the effects of the day and the month to these two types of variability.
To gain an international acceptance for an evaluation result of CO2 emission using a traffic simulation model, the Energy ITS project proposes a framework for validation of traffic simulation models and CO2 emission models, and tries to build a consensus through international workshops. A validation trial to confirm the feasibility of the proposed validation framework was carried out. Furthermore, an experiment on the effect of the Eco-Driving on traffic capacity of signalized intersection was conducted to validate reproducibility of the traffic simulation model.
The 20th ITS World Congress will be held in Tokyo in October, 2013. It is said that the 1st stage of ITS of our country began from the Yokohama meeting. Then, it is said that it went into the 2nd stage from the Nagoya meeting, and it continues till the present. It is expected that ITS of our country improves in a next-generation stage ignited by this Tokyo meeting. Nine years have passed since the Nagoya meeting. At this Tokyo meeting we would like to explain the activities in which the local government is constructing the new traffic society by utilizing nextgeneration ITS.[This abstract is not included in the PDF]
A field operation test of area management system to coordinate parking facilities using ICT has been prepared in Kashiwa city of Chiba pref., one of ITS FOT model city in Japan. The project aims to solve traffic problems of city center with the aid of ICT without metering car traffic. The discussion results so far and planning ideas to coexist congestion mitigation and city revitalization through functional enhancement of parking facilities have been reported.
Recently, with the spread of on-vehicle video, it became common to share the on-vehiclevideo on website. These videos can be used for frequently and widely updating of virtual city spacesuch as Google Street View, if the location of the videos are available. To estimate the location, itis required to match the uploaded on-vehicle video to the video with location taken by a probe car.In this paper, we propose the e.cient matching method using Temporal Height Image (THI),A.neSIFT and Bag of Feature. THI retains information of relative building height from temporal imagesequence, and extract robust features by Affine SIFT. We realize e.cient matching by expressingtheir features using Bag of features. We conducted experiments to show the e.ciency of the proposedmethod by real image sequences of the city.[This abstract is not included in the PDF]
This paper aims at the quantitative evaluation of the effect of Eco-Driving (‘Moderate Acceleration') on traffic capacity at signalized intersections. Although there are many studies which indicate the effectiveness of Eco-Driving in terms of CO2 emissions from a single vehicle, the evaluation of CO2 emissions considering the effect of Eco-Driving on traffic flow has not been achieved yet. Therefore, we develop the model which can estimate the traffic capacity of a signalized intersection with the consideration of the effect of Eco-Driving, and find that the decreasing effect of traffic capacity becomes large as the penetration rate of Eco-Driving vehicles becomes high
We describe a development of an on-line traffic simulation system called“Nowcast Traffic Simulation System"for road traffic in urban areas. The system can reproduce the traffic situation based on various types of traffic data in real time such as probe data and traffic sensor data. And the output data is used for several traffic information services including CO2 monitoring. In this paper, we explain the theoretical concept and the framework of Nowcast Traffic Simulation System giving an example of the demonstration experiment in Kashiwa city.".
The traffic control system of the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway is considering an implementation of the online short-term prediction by the real-time simulation. Some modules for making exact traffic conditions prediction at the incident congestion -“Emergent Bottleneck Detection", “Lane Blockade Time", “Road Capacity", “On-Ramp Traffic Volume Change", and “Off-Ramp Conversion"-were developed. This research reports the result of having analyzed the influence which those modules have on the predictive simulation.
In this research, we suggested an improved method of constructing database for data fusion of mobility, disaster, externals etc. And analysis system of the data fusion was developed using the database for creating information for traffic management in disaster and normal situations. We built an evacuation simulation as one example of data fusion analysis system. Not only network and OD data but also population and tsunami data were used as inputs. The Great East Japan Earthquake was simulated and analyzed traffic flow. Road and shelter capacity /location were evaluated using the simulation results.
This study is aimed at the development of traffic flow simulations that target road network in Japan. In our previous study, to be under-represented compared with the volume of traffic in the traffic census Status reproducibility was confirmed. In this report, subdivided into "B" zone concentration zones occurrence of vehicle size as this deal, aimed at improving reproducibility current state as a target more than "other road" road network is also finer.
Providing proper advice for the low skilled driver is one effective way to improve drivers'skill. But there are mainly two problems. One is the classifier of high and low skilled drivers. The other is to make clear the difference between two groups. In this paper, we proposed a driving skill analysis method to utilize of data collected by telematics system. A feature extraction technology based on machine learning algorithm is introduced to detect the characteristic difference between high and low skilled drivers and build a classifier. Results of experiments operated on driving simulator show the feasibility of the proposed method.
White matter lesions are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain that act as connectors and minor cases are commonly found in the brains of the elder people. An actual vehicle driving experiment was executed to evaluate driving performances of the elderly drivers with and without white matter lesions in the same ages. Before the driving experiment, all of the subjects undertook dynamic vigilance checker (DVC) test, which is a kind of visual cognitive test. During the driving experiment, a calculating task given by voice, namely paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), was imposed on drivers to examine the effect of the additional task on the driving performance. The results showed that the driver imposed with PASAT made more mistakes than that of the driver without PASAT, and the subject with white matter lesions is easier to be effected than the subjects without white matter lesions.
Recently, trajectory geometry of highway construction has been restricted due to higher density of buildings in urban area, and approaching distance is not enough in some convergence sections. To help drivers, development of assistance system in expressway junctions is expected. In this paper,reminder notice and guide beacons are examined to check driving performance along low visibility highway junction. On a test track, low visibility junction is mocked and driving test is carried out with 20 subjects in total to monitor vehicle state variables and driver's grip strength. As a result,driving with guide beacons and reminder notice have shown less stress when subjects approach the junction.
This paper reports Experiment for Bicycle Speed Control by Road Marking, “Optical Dot System (ODS)". ODS is developed by Han for improving safety to control speed of vehicle and is installed at the vertical curve section in MEX, Saitama-Omiya line since 2008. As the result, the drivers' autonomous stable speed control, has long-term effects of over the 4years9). In this experiment, ODS is re-designed on the basis of the cyclist, who has more direct driving braking, slower speed and wider visibility. By ten cyclists as the test subjects, it performed on 100m long section which tested on three type of road marking; ODS -Big and Small, Transversal-line and Plain. As the result, the driving speed has decreased by max. -11km/h and average -7km/h in the section with ODS. In other hand, section of Transversal-line was w/o any speed control effectiveness, same as Plain w/o pattern.
These days, it is an important issue to reduce the greenhouse gasses. Eco-driving is one of the solutions of the issue; however, the velocity of Eco-driving is low. For truck drivers, the arrival time is determined strictly, so that it is required to cope with both fuel efficiency and travel velocity. In this study, the data of eight professional truck drivers'driving methods measured by driving simulator are shown, and evaluated each driving from the perspective of fuel efficiency and travel velocity. The ideal driving method to cope with both fuel efficiency and travel velocity is shown by this study.
The purpose of this study is to improve the preliminary evaluation of effectiveness of road-traffic safety countermeasure for reformation plan of an actual intersection on National Route 16 in Kashiwa City, Toyofuta Kogyo Danchi Iriguchi Intersection, where traffic accidents of rear-end collision often occur. Utilizing national digital map, traffic scinario for driving simulator (DS) was structured,and driver behaviors were analyzed by DS's experiment based on the different traffic countermeasures. By the studying results, it is validated that preliminary evaluation of road-traffic safety countermeasure is feasible in DS experiment utilizing national digital map.
In this study, the lane-change behavior at a lane-closure event was analyzed by driving simulation for the implementation of a dynamic lane operation for JCT merging sections at Route C1 of Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway. Variable message signs (VMS) were evaluated to be helpful for test drivers to change the lane even when the lane-closure event suddenly appeared. However, the hightraffic level significantly affected the lane-change behavior, and speed reduction, even risky driving behavior, was observed. Therefore, it is considered that a driver guidance system that makes drivers change the lane in advance by further study on the content and the installation of the VMS is essential for the implementation of the dynamic lane operation.in automatic platooning experiments.