SEISAN KENKYU
Online ISSN : 1881-2058
Print ISSN : 0037-105X
ISSN-L : 0037-105X
Volume 68 , Issue 3
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Introduction to Special Section
Research Review
  • Sayaka TACHIZAWA, Haruko TAKAHASHI, Yukiko T. MATSUNAGA
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 183-187
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Hydrogels have biocompatible and tunable chemical and physical properties, and therefore, are expected to be useful for the scaffold in tissue engineering. As it is well known that the behavior of cellular adhesion is changed by the microstructure of materials, there are abundant studies on biomaterials for scaffold with a variety of microstructures. Additionally, a bundled structure is useful for development of artificial tissues/organs because of its strength and complex three-dimensional structure. In this study, we described fabrication of new cellulosic bundled gel fibers by a dynamic microfluidic gelation system, which is composed with phaseseparated polymer blend solutions and a co-flow micro fluidic device.
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  • Marie SHINOHARA, Sapana POUDEL, Kohei SHIMIZU, Kikuo KOMORI, Yasuyuki ...
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 189-194
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Transplantation of pancreas or pancreatic islets is a possible curative treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus with poorly controlled glycemia. However, we have faced the chronic donor shortage. Embryonic stem (ES) cells-, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells-, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)- derived pancreatic islets is now expected to be contributed for the regenerative medicine, which leads global and active developments of associated techniques. In this short review, we introduce related technologies to prepare pancreatic β cells in vitro, to form transplantable pancreatic tissues, and to fabricate a supportive device for implants.
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  • Keiichi KIMURA, Ikki HORIGUCHI, Taketomo KIDO, Atsushi MIYAJIMA, Yasuy ...
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 195-199
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Since hepatocytes play an important role in drug metabolism, in vitro tests using human hepatocytes are one of the most important aspects of drug screenings. However, normal human hepatocytes are facing a chronic shortage in research settings. To solve this problem, hepatocytes derived from iPSCs are attracting attention as the alternative cell sources of primary human hepatocytes. However, the function of iPSCs derived hepatocytes is significantly lower compared to that of normal hepatocytes so far. In this review, we introduce the current status and future perspectives of hepatic differentiation and maturation of iPSC cells.
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Research Flash
  • Yusuke UMEGAKI, Yoshiho IKEUCHI
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 201-204
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Neuronal morphogenesis is essential for normal brain functions, and disruption of neuronal morphogenesis leads developmental brain disorders. Neuron-specific regulation of protein synthesis plays an important role in neuronal morphogenesis. To reveal the molecular mechanisms, we performed an un-biased search for proteins produced under control of mTOR signaling pathway in neurons. In neuronal cells, two isoforms generated from the uncovered protein were reduced upon mTOR inhibition, while only one isoform was mTOR-sensitive in non-neuronal cells. These results suggested that protein synthesis of particular isoforms is regulated specifically in neurons.
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Research Review
Research Flash
  • Saeko KAWATAKI, Maria Carmelita KASUYA, Kenichi HATANAKA
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 211-212
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    For the purpose of supplying oxygen from fluorous solvent and the nutrition from culture medium to the cell at the same time, the cell culture systems in which both DMEM medium and fluorous solvent contact with 3T3-L1 cells were built. In two-layer micro channel system, the cells grew as well as in the normal culture medium. On the other hand, the morphology of the cell was abnormal in fluorous solvent only. In addition, upside-down cell culture system could be used for 3T3-L1 cells using T-flask, and the increase of the cell number was found in the presence of fluorous solvent.
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Research Review
  • Taehwan KIM, Toshiyuki HIRANO, Fumitoshi SATO
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 213-217
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The RESP charge has been proposed for the purpose of reproducing the electrostatic potential (ESP) of molecules and widely used for the molecular mechanics or molecular dynamics simulation. Because the cost of the RESP charge determination by using full QM calculation is high, the protein RESP charge is substituted by the combination of parameterized RESP charge for each amino acid residue. In this study, we have developed the atomic charge calculation method which reproduce intrinsic ESP based on the canonical molecular orbital calculation of the entire protein and improved the quality of atomic charge. In addition to RESP charge followed by the original definition, the various atomic charges of protein were proposed by applying the linear regression method to the atomic charge model with keeping the property of accurate ESP reproductivity.
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  • Shogo KIHIRA, Toshiyuki HIRANO, Fumitoshi SATO
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 219-223
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Recently, full-quantum chemical calculation of large molecules such as proteins became computable. However, geometry optimization (energy minimization) of protein is not realistic because computational cost of single point calculation is still high, there are a very large number of degrees of freedom, and in general energy potential surface becomes complicated by the quantum effect. In this study, we focused the local geometry optimization problem of 9-residue peptide oxytocin in a practical point of view, and analyzed its locally stable structures.
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  • Masahiro SATO, Akiko KUMADA, Kunihiko HIDAKA, Toshiyuki HIRANO, Fumito ...
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 225-229
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Charge transfer (CT) in organic materials, such as CT in DNA, ATP and molecular organic semiconductors has attracted increasing interest. In this paper we evaluate hole mobility in polyethylene, the simplest polymer. The results show that hole mobility in polyethylene is small due to the small electronic coupling and large reorganization energy owing to its σ bonded structure of hole localized state. In addition it is shown that hole mobility increases with increasing chain length due to the decrease in reorganization energy owing to the increase in the extent of delocalization of hole localized state.
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Introduction to Special Section
Research Flash
Research Review
Research Flash
  • Takuma NAKAGAWA, Makito OKU, Kazuyuki AIHARA
    2016 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 271-274
    Published: May 01, 2016
    Released: May 30, 2016
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Recently, the dynamical network marker (DNM) method has been developed for providing early warning signals that predict abrupt changes of complex systems accompanying bifurcations. In our study, we constructed a generic mathematical model for systems with complex network structure and examined the effectiveness of the DNM method. In addition, we pointed out that one of the indices included in the previous method is inadequate in most real-world cases and modified the method. As a result of numerical analysis, it was suggested that we should choose the DNM carefully considering the features of the systems to apply the method effectively.
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