SEISAN KENKYU
Online ISSN : 1881-2058
Print ISSN : 0037-105X
ISSN-L : 0037-105X
Volume 71 , Issue 4
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
Introduction to Special Section
Research Review
  • Yasuhisa MORISHITA, Nobuyuki TAKAMA, Beomjoon KIM
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 763-768
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Recently, microneedles have been applied for less-invasiveness body fluid extraction system for biosensors, in addition to transdermal drug delivery system. To realize simple and easy fabrication of microneedles for extraction of body fluid such as blood and interstitial fluid, porous microneedles have been receiving attention. In this study, we investigated fabrication of biodegradable porous microneedle for interstitial fluid. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid, FDA approved biodegradable polymer was choosed as the material of microneedle. Porous microneedle was fabricated by using salt-leaching method to obtain porous structure and thermal process to get MN array shape.

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  • Haruki EGUCHI, Toshiyuki HIRANO, Fumitoshi SATO
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 769-773
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The new visualization technique of canonical molecular orbitals (MOs) was developed with the cloud-like model. The random position points according with the MO distribution were generated by the rejection method. Quasi-isosurface indication and the coloring in accordance with MO value were proposed and succeeded in representation of internal structure containing inclusion-type isosurface. This method also displays a wide range of MO values simultaneously, so the MO distribution can be observed with little loss of information. This method is useful for analyses in the complicated protein MOs.

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  • Ryo USUBA, Yukiko T. MATSUNAGA
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 775-781
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Cancer cells proliferate actively, and induce angiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor to obtain enough oxygen and nutrient supply for their growth. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs which cut out nutrient supply for cancer cells by inhibiting a blood formation are now used for cancer therapy. However, there are many problems remaining such as drug resistance and target diseases in anti-angiogenic therapy. It would be attributed to that conventional in vitro methods can not reflect endothelial functions properly and in vivo methods have difficulty in analyzing complicated process and difference between human and animals. In this article, we introduce an in vitro 3-dimensional blood vessel model to mimic cancer microenvironment, to assess anti-angiogenic drugs, and to explore a related gene.

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Research Flash
  • Hiroko RYU, Yoshiro MORITA, Yukiko T. MATSUNAGA
    Type: Research Flash
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 783-786
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    ‘Health’ is a subject of social concern today. Based on the search results in“ Web of Science” online indexing service, this study clarified the trends of papers whose titles include the word of ‘health’. Although the papers with ‘health’ in title have been major in the field of“ Life Sciences & Biomedicine” field, they are increasing in ‘Business & Economics’ and ‘Computer Science’ categories.

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  • Stephany Mai NISHIKAWA, Farad KHOYRATEE, Anne-Claire EILER, Soo Hyeon ...
    Type: Research Flash
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 787-790
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Nowadays, neurological disorders that disrupt the connections between the brain and the body causing paralysis affect millions of people around the world. The development of neuroprostheses has and will have a serious impact on the quality of life. These neuroprostheses are designed from knowledge of neural networks and their interaction, taking into account the spontaneous activity of neural networks but also the activity of these networks following various stimuli. These systems must integrate the behavior of the neural network to be replaced but also generate the appropriate stimuli to restore the desired neural function. The hardware system that interfaces with the biological component is a network of biomimetic Spiking Neural Network (SNN). A neural activity recording and stimulation platform is also mandatory for testing the different approach and hypothesis. The aim of this work is to enable bio-hybrid experiments which means bi-directional communications between artificial neurons and biological neurons, allowing tools to be developed for further biomedical understanding of the nervous system. Here, we propose some set up experiments using biomimetic artificial neural network connected in a bi-directional communication with ‘in vitro’ cells. Nowadays, neurological disorders that disrupt the connections between the brain and the body causing paralysis affect millions of people around the world. The development of neuroprostheses has and will have a serious impact on the quality of life. These neuroprostheses are designed from knowledge of neural networks and their interaction, taking into account the spontaneous activity of neural networks but also the activity of these networks following various stimuli. These systems must integrate the behavior of the neural network to be replaced but also generate the appropriate stimuli to restore the desired neural function. The hardware system that interfaces with the biological component is a network of biomimetic Spiking Neural Network

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Research Review
  • Ryuji MISAWA, Siu Yu A. CHOW, Yoshiho IKEUCHI
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 791-795
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Human higher cognitive functions such as cognition, memory and consciousness are achieved by reciprocal connections between cortical areas. However, despite the significance of the reciprocal connections between cortical areas (macroscopic neural circuits), little is known about the mechanisms underlying their formation and function. In this review article, we summarize the importance of communication between cortical areas including in language processing. In addition, we discuss benefits and significance of connection between distant areas in the brain. We introduce researches using 3D cultured neural tissue termed as cerebral organoids to study interaction of different brain regions, and discuss future perspectives at last.

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Research Flash
Research Review
  • Takanori YOKOI, Kazuyuki ISHII
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 799-804
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) has been tested in the clinic against various forms of cancers, with some success. However, in vivo tracing of intravenously injected ascorbic acid has not been achieved. We have developed phthalocyaninatosilicon (SiPc) covalently linked to two tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) radicals as fluorescence probes for detecting ascorbic acid. These SiPc-based fluorescence probes were encapsulated into liposome or dimeric bovine serum albumin (BSA) in order to apply them to biological systems. Based on these encapsulations, we successfully imaged ascorbic acid administered to cancer cells or mice, for the first time. These results provide opportunities to advance the use of ascorbic acid as cancer therapy.

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Introduction to Special Section
Research Flash
Field Report
  • Jiyoon KIM, Jaeho KIM, Takaaki KATO
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 829-835
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    This study aims to look back on the provision of temporary housing in the Pohang earthquake, which recorded the most significant damage scale in Korean history and to seek future improvement directions by comparing the cases in Japan and Korea. The characteristics of temporary housing in the Pohang earthquake are the temporary housing in a property owned by the victim, temporary housing with a temporary store, and a management office within a housing complex and a housing complex where a specific size of outdoor space can be secured. A comparative analysis was conducted on the case of temporary housing in Japan and Korea from the perspective of supply thought, supply type, the period until provision, construction cost.

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Research Review
  • – Change of Urban Structure and Local Social Situation and Main Issues of Prevention from Post-earthquake Urban Fires –
    Takaaki KATO
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 837-843
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Japanese urbanized area has vulnerability to urban fire-spreading as shown a urban fire-spreading occurred in Itoigawa city on Dec. 26, 2016. Urban structure and situation of local communities has changed although basic structure of urban fire-spreading measures has remained old style. In this paper, I firstly discussed two issues required to correspond to recent physical and social change: 1) how long will urban vulnerability to urban fire-spreading continue as one of most major problems?, 2) how should be the level of a goal?, and then I showed there directions of measures to be done near future: 3) comprehensive measures at district level in consideration of limitation of measures at city level such as evacuation are and urban fire compartments, 4) hybrid measures at district level of urban physical improvement and capacity improvement fire-fighting,5) measures at building level combined to urban physical improvement.

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Research Flash
  • Kohei NAGAI, Punyawut JIRADILOK, Koji MATSUMOTO
    Type: Research Flash
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 845-850
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Chaitanya K GADAGAMMA, Shanthanu M. RAJASEKHARAN, Yasushi ARAI, Shyoki ...
    Type: Research Flash
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 851-857
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In many applications of earthquake engineering, response to earthquakes are estimated attributing to specific sites and scenarios as they are invaluable for design as well as redesign purposes. Development of seismic acclerograms, which are widely used for the mentioned purpose needs to satisfy the requirements of demand from probabilistic hazard as well as regional characteristics through the frequency content in the soil.

    This is a working paper which discusses the development of a methodology to generate spectrum consistent earthquake design input motion using a database of strong ground motions. The database used is based on the sensors buried at different depths at various locations in Tokyo for 40 years by Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd. and the source parameters from Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Also, the local site conditions obtained from borehole data are substantiated to this database.

    We have described the use of three methods the development of a target response spectrum. Using existing design accelerogram prescribed, deterministic hazard and probabilistic hazard. In all the methods, the geotechnical site characteristics are incorporated while convolution and deconvolution using an equivalent linear ground motion analysis tool called DYNEQ. The target accelerograms have been translated from target response spectrums using Ohsaki Method.

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  • Tsukasa MIZUTANI
    Type: Research Flash
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 859-863
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In recent years, there has been an active movement to improve the efficiency of infrastructural maintenance management. The author uses the devices such as high resolution camera, laser, radar and so on as hardware, and digital signal processing and AI that became a buzzword as software, and builds road surface and underground information automatically at high speed with ultra-scale. This paper describes the development trends of technology that the author expects to bring about innovation in infrastructure maintenance management in the near future by introducing some latest authors researches.

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Research Review
  • Mehedi Ansary, MF Haque
    Type: 研究解説
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 865-875
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Settlement is the vital issue for analysis of a tunnel in any conditions of soils such as sand, clay etc. Many researches have been carried out to predict surface settlement above a tunnel but some technique needs further research to be established. In this paper, analysis of EPB-TBM (Earth Pressure Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine) tunnel has been considered along a straight line through homogeneous sand layer which has been observed in the Chittagong Coastal area, Bangladesh. Circular type tunnel is considered for analysis. Direct effect of seismic fault has been neglected. Phased construction method has been incorporated to analyze this event. Important parameters for surface settlement of tunnel are tunnel depth, tunnel diameter, tunnel construction technique, different relative densities of sand etc. In this paper, the variation of tunnel depth and tunnel diameter has been considered and analyzed. Analysis has been performed through finite element based software PLAXIS 3D. Surface settlement along transverse and longitudinal to the tunnel axis has been predicted. Variation of depth (distance between free surfaces to top surface of the tunnel), tunnel diameter and length (phased excavation) have been considered to evaluate surface settlement for static and dynamic cases in sands.

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  • Shiro OCHI, Tran Thanh DAN, Manzul Kumar HAZARIKA, Wataru TAKEUCHI
    Type: Research Review
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 877-882
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Many space agencies in the world nowadays provide their emergency observation data to the public free of charge in the event of a large-scale disaster. International Disaster Charter is a framework to accomplish it in the international scale. And, Sentinel Asia is a regional one for Asia-Pacific, but it involves not only space agencies but disaster management organizations, research institutes and universities in the region. It means that Sentinel Asia functions not only to deliver the data to the users but also to produce value-added products(VAPs) and disseminate them to the relevant organizations. The University of Tokyo and Asian Institute of Technology have been responsible for the data analysis and the capacity building program in Sentinel Asia for more than 10 years. In the last three years, 96 cases of disaster were responded by Sentinel Asia, and VAPs were produced in most cases. Based on this experience, technical issues for VAP to be effectively used in emergency disaster response are discussed, referring examples of standard VAP for several types of disasters such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. Moreover, our future efforts to improve the accuracy and reliability of VAP are introduced.

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Research Paper
Field Report
  • Yuko NAKATSUKA, Kentarou OKADA, Masanobu KARASAWA, Kazuyuki ISHII, Hir ...
    Type: Field Report
    2019 Volume 71 Issue 4 Pages 883-887
    Published: July 01, 2019
    Released: July 31, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Various glasses containing 3d transition metal oxides have been prepared by the containerless processing, and their magnetic and magneto-optical properties have been investigated. Among 3d transition metal-containing glasses, the FeO-containing glass showed the largest Verdet constant. The absolute value of the Verdet constant increased by increasing the FeO content. When the composition of the glass matrix changed, the value of the Verdet constant changed. The wavelength dependence of the Verdet constant was analysed by using Van VleckHebb equation. The results imply that the change of the effective transition probability attributes to the change of the value of the Verdet constant.

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