The intertidal zonation of marine algae along the coasts of Ago Bay, Mie Pref., which face the Pacific Ocean, was studied. The field work which forms the basis of this paper was undertaken during March, 1957 to March, 1958. As the results of the investigations, two communities were found. Gloiopeltis furcata-Myelophycus caespitosus-Hizikia fusiforme-Eisenia bicyclis community is found only at the mouth of the bay. The dominant algae of the community are Gloiopeltis furcata, Myelophycus caespitosus, Hizikia fusiforme and Eisenia bicyclis, associated with Ishige okamurai, I.foliacea, Gigartina intermedia, Hydroclathrus clathratus, Carpopeltis flabellata, Sargassum thunbergii, Colpomenia sinuosa, Sargassum hemiphyllum and S.ringgoldianum. This community shows a distinctive characteristic of the open sea. The author has found that the community is distributed over Onahama, Boso Pen., Izu Pen., Ise Bay, Matoya Bay, Hyuganada, etc. Monostroma nitidum-Scytosiphon lomentarius community was found over most of the bay. In this community there can be recognized two belts which are named after the dominant species occurring there. They are from above downward. Monostroma nitidum belt and Scytosiphon lomentarius belt. The dominant alga of the former is Monostroma nitidum associated with Enteromorpha sp. and Gelidium pusillum. The dominant alga of the latter is Scytosiphon lomentarius with Sargassum thunbergii, Hydroclathrus clathratus, Colpomenia sinuosa, Petrospongium rugosum and Sargassum patens. The community shows a distinctive characteristic of the inland sea and the community of the same kind is distributed over Mikawa Bay, Ise Bay, Tanabe Bay, the Inland Sea, Tosa Uranouchi Bay, Beppu Bay, Ariakekai and Kagoshima Bay. The important factors with regard to the distribution of the algal communities are topography of the bay and its coast-line as well as the direction of the wave action.
In previous reports a mathematical method was given to analyse the mechanism of capture by the trap. In this paper the same method was used to solve why we get a unimodal skew curve (Fig. 1) which represents the shape of fishing velocity (dw/dt) curve during one operation. The result was applied to the observation obtained from the pole-fishing on Katsuwo (Skipjack).
In seeking for the life form of plants reflecting micro-environmental conditions, NUMATA's migrule form (1947,50), and HORIKAWA and MIYAWAKI's growth form (classification of the growth form of weeds based upon the external morphological features of stem and root) were proposed besides RAUNKIAER's life form (1907). But, those forms are sometimes inadequate for the practical use, so I wish to add the leaf form to them. I classified the leaf form into 5 types on the basis of ecological characters of leaves refering to as well as RAUNKIAER's leaf size class and DANSEREAU's leaf type. La; acerose or scaly Ls; succulent Lc; coriaceous Lh; hairy Lt; thin The growth form and radicoid (radix+oid=underground part of a plant) form are divided as follows respectively. Growth form Se; erect Sb; branched Sc; caespitose Sp; prostrate St; twining Radicoid type Rs; straight root or straight rootstock Rf; fibrous or reticulate root Rb; branched root Rr; rhizome or stolon B; bulb and tuberous I tried the combination of life forms of plants as RAUNKIAER'S life form, shoot form, leaf form, radicoid form, and disseminule type. I used this new system of life-form combination for coastal plants at the seashore of Japan Sea in Hokkaido. As a result of that trial, it was of great use as a reflex of the micro-environment. For example, the vegetation type growing in each environment may be expressed as follows. 1. H-Se-Lt-Rb・f-D_4 at the fertile cliff area faced the sea 2. H-Se-Ls-Rs-D_4 at the rocky cliff area 3. H-Sp-Ls-Rs・b-D_4 at the coastal pebbly area 4. G-Sp-Ls-Rs・b-D_4 at the unstable sandy beach area 5. G-Se・p-Lc-Rs・r-D_4 at the intermediate area 6. N-Sb-Lt-Rb-D_4 at the stable area
The canes of the bamboos, two months (I), three months (II), one year (III) and three years (IV) after budding, were cut at about 60cm and 10cm in length and diameter respectively. The internodes of the canes were filled with sterile tap-water, and then set in a shaddy place of a hill on the campus of the Tohoku University. 1. In about a week after setting, Diptera larvae begun to appear in almost all of the waters of such containers. Armigeres subalbatus and Eristalis were dominant in I and II, Aedes flavopictus and Eristalis in III and A. flavopictus in IV respectively. 2. The protozoan population begun to appear in these containers in a few days after setting. These populations changed successively into others with the lapse of time. The protozoan sequences in the various bodies of water of bamboo containers are summarized as shown in schema 1. 3. The habitats of Diptera larvae are characterized by a concomitant appearance of definite Protozoa, namely the Protozoa seems to play an important part as an indicator of the larval habitats; Heteromita and Chromulina became the indicator for A. flavopictus; Polytomella and Glaucoma for Eristalis; Chlamydomonas and Cercomonas for both Eristalis and Armigeres. 4. When the glass vessels containing the bamboo juices with different concentrations were placed in the field, they were characterized by a definite sequence of the protozoan succession after bacterial contamination. In this case, there exists a noticeable relation between the protozoan appearance and the starting concentration. Namely, the bamboo juices with high concentration provided the conditions suitable for the appearance of the late seral sequence, and in low concentrations the juices changed to the media of early seral ones, through the affection of bacteria on the abiotic substances. 5. However, such relationships were recognized not only in the bamboo juice but also in the media of such raw nutrient materials as the yeast extract and peptone, and in those composed of casein hydrolyzate and tryptophane. Namely, Cercomonas and Chlamydomonas appeared in the starting concentrations of 1.0 and 0.5 per cent, and both Glaucoma and Polytomella in those of 0.1 and 0.05 per cent and Heteromita and Chromulina in those less than 0.01 per cent (Tables 1,2,4). This fact clearly means that the succession of Protozoa is determined by the bacterial decomposition of the aminoacid related to the gradual changes of its concentration, as is represented by the schema 2. 6. From the above, it is conceivable that the characteristics of the water of bamboo container was determined by the combinations of the following elements : 1) the kind of bamboo, 2) Diptera larva, 3) Protozoa, 4) Bacteria, and 5) Amino acids. Therefore, the structural aspect of the present microcosm may be given by the dynamic relation existing among these elements as is shown in the schema 3.
To the present, Pinus pentaphylla in Hokkaido has been known from Provs. Oshima, Shiribeshi, Iburi and the Hidaka Range. But recently, the third geographical group of distribution was found, of which locality is limited along the Upper Nipesotsu, a branch of the Tokachi River (Fig. 1,4). The isolated area of Pinus pentaphylla under consideration, occupies about 2 ha and the Pinus pentaphylla stand not over about 0.5 ha. The figure of belt-transect at this point is show in Fig. 2,and its structure is shown in Tables 1,2 and 3. From the sociological studies on Pinus pentaphylla forest in Hokkaido, the following sociations was recognized : -Pinus pentaphylla-Menziesia pentandra sociation, P. pentaphylla-Ilex Sugeroki var. brevipedunculata sociation, P. pentaphylla-Rhododendron Fauriae var. rufescens sociation and P. pentaphylla-Carex blepharicarpa sociation. According to these studies, the Pinus pentaphylla-Ericaceae shrubs association on a rocky place is the representative one.
This report deals with the results of the investigation on areas of stock ranges in Hyogo Prefecture in 1957 for the purpose to classify the grassland communities, and to analyse the relation between the communities and top soil characters or elevation of slopes. The results are : (1) Sampling plots consisted of 62 plots, and were investigated by the line interception method (10m) and the nest quadrat method (1m^2). The dominance was expressed as (coverage ratio+frequency ratio)/2 (2) The plant communities may be grouped into six types, as follows : one, Miscanthus type, two, Arundinaria type, three, Pteridium type, four, Miscanthus-Pteridium type, five, Arundi-naria-Miscanthus type, and six, Arundinaria-Pteridium type. (3) The value of the Km index among plants shows a close relation-ship between Miscanthus and Lespedeza (100) given in Table 1. (4) At higher elevation, the bush is open, and Miscanthus grows in every elevation, but on the other hand Pteridium only in areas of low elevation. (5) The yield of native plants seems to decrease from below upwards on the slope. (6) The effects of soil characters on the plant communities are shown in Table 8.