日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
11 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の16件中1~16を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 鈴木 静夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 1-4
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Ecological studies on aquatic Phycomycetes were carried out in the lakes of Volcano Nikko, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 2. Large amounts of zoospores of aquatic Phycomycetes were found in the water of Lake Yunoko and Kotokunuma, but were acarce in the other lakes studied. 3. Nine species were obtained from the lake waters of the Nikko Volcanic Group. Pythium sp. was the dominant species and was seen in all lakes. Saprolegnia terrestris, which was isolated from Lake Kirikomiko, was a species new to Japan. 4. The bottom muds of the Nikko Volcanic Group were characterized by the jet black reduced mud, resulting in the removal of oxygen from the contacting water. Aquatic Phycomycetes were very scarce, and Pythium sp. was the only species that was isolated from these black muds. 5. On the basis of the fungus productivity, the lakes of Volcano Nikko were ranged as follows ; Yunoko>Kotokunuma>Tadenoumi>^Kirikomiko_Karikomiko>Chuzenjiko. The fungus productivity of Lake Yunoko, Kotokunuma and Tadenoumi was the same as that of the eutrophic lakes. It was relatively scarce in Lake Karikomiko and Kirikomiko. The zoospore was not seen in the lake water of the central region in Lake Chuzenjiko.
  • 佳山 良正
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 4-10
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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    1. In this paper, new methods of representing the dominance in a plant community are introduced. To discriminate coarsely the distribution type of POLYA-EGGENBERGER on a plant community, λ=(h+xd)/(1+d) diagram is usually used, where h is x^^- and d is 1-v/x^^- for the maximum likelihood estimate. A new method of representing the dominance in a plant community applied with λ=(h+xd)/(1+d) diagram is discussed here. The points obtained from the equation (λ=(h+xd)/(1+d)) draw a straight line in the first plane constructed from two axes. The author found that the dominance in a plant community is closely related with the angle constructed from the straight line and x-axis. 2. Concerning the relation between the distribution type and the angle, probability of the distribution of samples shows an ascending line in case of the POLYA-EGGENBERGER type, a nearly parallel line to x-axis in case of the POISSON type, and a descending line in case of the binominal type. 3. The angle constructed from the ascending line and x-axis is not exceed about 40°. 4. To examine the distribution of the number of individuals or the coverage of clover in quadrats, it is desirable to use 1-meter-quadrat. 5. The distribution type varies with time in such a process as POISSON type → POLYA-EGGEN-BERGER type → POISSON type → binominal type.
  • 阿部 泰雄, 鈴木 時夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 10-19
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Il y a cinq groupements vegetaux aux prairies et paturages dans la region volcanique au Kyusyu Central. Ils ne sont encore ordonnes en ranges phytosociologiques, mais c'est evidant qu'ils sont d'appartenir aux deux alliances (gr. 1,2,et 3 a la alliance du Miscanthion et gr. 4 et 5 a celle du Zoysion). Dans cette region, les P-T-quotients de LANG [Temperature moyenne d'annee (C/Precipitation annuelle (mm)] toujours depassent 100. Ainsi le climat n'empeche pas l'accroissement de bois et la vegetation herbacee ne s'effectue que par la fonction anthropogenes (le paturages, le fauchage et l'incendie accidentale). Dans la region volcanique d'Aso, le volcanisme est la cause de determiner la repartition de premier a troisieme groupements. Le contour au nord-ouest se couvre des paturages au groupements a l'Arundinaria (gr. 3) et celui du sud-est des prairies au Miscanthus (gr. 1). Anssi la disposition concentrique du groupement 1 (au Miscanthus) jusqu'au 3 (a l'Arundinaria) en passant du groupement 2 (au Miscanthus-Arundinaria) s'expose des cones centrals au contour exterieur. Dans cette region le facteur edaphique par l'amacellment de la cendre volcanique et le lessivage des sels par l'eau parcourante sont bien effectifs. Dans la region de Kuzyu, ou le volcanisme s'est presque arrete, le groupement le plus predominant est celui de l'Arundinaria qui est sur le sol le moins contenu des sels. Natu-rellement le groupement au Miscanthus est localise dans la terre moins paturee ou plus ecartee de l'habitation de l'homme. La serie des groupements de l'Arundinaria (et l'Arundinaria-Pteridium jusqu'a celui au Pteridium) se developpe par l'accroissement de paturage. En consequence cette serie ne se trouve a l'endroit plus haut que 900m d'altitude ou est la limite de l'habitation de l'homme. L'exposition et l'inclinaison determine la repartition locale des sortes des groupements vegetaiaux aux prairies et paturage. Sur le versant sud et sud-oust les groupements a l'Arundinaria-Pteridium et a Pteridium sont repandus, mais celui au Miscanthus ou au Miscanthus-Arundinaria se demure sur le versant oppose.
  • Katsuji TSUNEKI
    原稿種別: Article
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 19-25
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 黒田 長久
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 26-34
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー

    1. This paper is based on 34 roost-site and 76 roosting flight observations of the Grey Starling, Sturnus cineraceus, and the factors influencing the timing of roosting are considered. 2. Roost-site observation. Behaviours of preroosting assembly and roosting in this species is similar to those described by JUMBER in the European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris. The timing of roosting in the breeding season is solely subject to the degree of the parents' adherence to their nest, being latest in incubation and feeding periods (at least one parent retires to common roost in these periods), but by flying of chicks the roosting assembly becomes distinctly earlier. There is also noticed seasonal tendency that longer the daylength the earlier becomes the roosting. 3. Roosting flight observation. The following periods may be distinguished in the"feeding ground assembly" (of JUMBER) before starting to roosts : 1) Joint feeding period, 2) Pre-flight resting period and 3) Starting period. Observations are reported about the behaviour of flocks in these periods. The light intensity was measured by a portable TL-4 Lux meter. 4. The factors influencing the timing of start from the feeding ground to roosts are considered to be as follows : a) Distance. The longer the distance (but no difference up to 20 km) the earlier the start, but the shorter (or cut off) becomes the resting period, since they feed as long as possible. Thus the loss of feeding period owing to distance is kept at the minimum. b) Temperature. In winter, they feed actively and longer, therefore starting later (and without resting period) on severe cold days. On warm days, they finish feeding earlier, rest longer and start earlier. The higher rate of metabolism caused by low temperature would urge them to increase the amount of food intake, and may stimulate their social activity. Thus, active social bathing is often observed in the cold evening. c) Season. Roosting flight becomes earlier in early spring (though late in the breeding season), which is also supported by roost-site observation. This may be correlated not only with sufficient feeding time by longer daylength (as BROWN has suggested), but also with the increase of body fat in spring (proved by specimens), as well as lower rate of metabolism by the increasing temperature, d) Food supply. In autumn, it was observed that when local food supply was temporarily abundant, they left for roost earlier. Examples of this were recorded during the harvest season of rice plants, when the larvae of rice-moth were easily obtained from cut stems both on the ground and hung on poles. Also, where fruits of trees were abundant they left for roost earlier. e) Weather. In cloudy weather their start of roosting flight was earlier than on fine days. Considering also the reported early roosting in bad weather (JUMBER), this may be explained by that on bad or cloudy day the activity of birds is generally suppressed which decreases their metabolic rate, and therefore, the necessary amount of food intake is gained earlier than on fine days. f) Light intensity. The roosting flight releasing light intensity may be classified into : 1. Highest (or initial) light intensity, which is reacted by those birds which have taken enough food for the day (therefore ready for roosting), 2. Average (or most frequent) light intensity, to which most birds of the flock respond ; 3. Lowest (or final) light intensity, which is reacted by latest birds. For statistical comparison of roosting flight releasing light intensity, 'the number index' of roosting birds was used, which is calculated by : Σ number of birds starting or flying to roost at a certain light intensity × frequency of observation, or number of flocks observed, from winter observation, the highest light intensity was 28,000 Lux (58 minute before sunset) at 40km from the roost ; 15,000-7,000 Lux (49-38 minute before sunset)

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  • 田村 市太郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 34-38
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    There are several species of earthworms injuring the growth of the rice plant in the nursery bed and the paddy field, but few studies concerning the injurious feature have been made. In the Hokuriku district in Japan where the paddy field cannot be drained or poorly drained of the water, the damage by the injurious earthworm is one of the serious problems on the rice plant cultivation. Therefore, to make a contribution to the control of these injurious earthworms, the author has attempted to investigate the seasonal prevalence of Limnodrilus gotoi HATAI which is distributed widely in this district. A large number of worms reared in a concrete-frame was used. And the total number of worms and the active individuals which appeared on the bottom of the water were observed at the intervals of 5 or 10 days from April to November of 1959,and also the water and soil temperatures were measured. The results obtained are : 1. At the end of April, a dense population of active worms is observed at the bottom of the water, but their number decreases gradually toward the end of June and the beginning of July. The dense population appears again in the middle of July, but they tend to decrease till the beginning of October. Afterwards, the worms become dense from the end of October to the end of November. 2. It was ascertained that a positive correlation was recognized between the total number of worms and the active individuals. 3. It is considered that the swinging activity at the bottom of the water is influenced by the water temperature and the soil temperature. From late April to the beginning of June and in the middle and late October, the active swinging is observed at 20〜21℃ of the soil temperature and at 22℃ of the water temperature. But, in summer the most active swinging is observed at the temperature higher than the above. From these results, it seems that the swinging movement in the former case is the normal action under the favourable conditions, but that in the latter case is the abnormal and rather desperating action caused by the high temperature. 4. The irregular daily change is seen in the total number of individuals which appeares on the soil surface at the bottom of the water. The main factor relating to the above seems to be such thermal factor as the soil temperature or the water temperature.
  • 宮本 セツ
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 38-49
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, the results of comparative studies on the flower-visiting habits of Japanese bees are described with special reference to some problems, namely : flower-visiting period, visiting object, preference to flower-species, and also, status as flower-visiting bee or value as pollinator. (1) Flower-visiting activities of Japanese bees start by Apis indica japonica in February and finish with Bombus diversus in November. Some species of Apidae, Halictidae, and Megachilidae have considerably long flower-visiting periods (Table 1). (2) Numerous species of Japanese bees visited flowers during the periods of May (39 species) and June (36 species) (Table 2). Moreover, the number of individuals of flower-visiting bees showed the maximum population in the periods of April-July and September-October, respectively. (3) The maximum number of flower-species visited in a month was shown by the workers of B. diversus. That is, the workers of B. diversus visited the flowers of 30 species respectively in June and July, and they were followed by Xylocopa appendiculata circumvolans (20 and 22 species respectively in May and June), Tetralonia nipponensis (20 species in June), and Halictus scitulus (22 and 24 species respectively in May and June) (Table 4). (4) Total number of flower-species visited by 52 bee-species in each month, were recorded as follows : 320 flower-species in May, 241 species in June, 172 species in April, 111 species in September, and 101 species in July (Table 4). (5) Most flowers with rather long flowering period were included in Compositae (8 months), Labiatae (7 months), Leguminosae (7 months), and Rosaceae (6 months). And, most Japanese bees visited predominantly the flowers of Leguminosae (125 species in total), Compositae (118 species), Rosaceae (97 species), and Labiatae (52 species) (Table 3). (6) On the preference of Apoidea to flowers, it may be summarized as follows. The preferences were shown to the flowers of Compositae, Cruciferae, Rosaceae, and Ranunculaceae by the bees of Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, and two genera of cuckoo bee, Nomada and Epeolus. On the other hand, the bees of Megachilidae and Apidae preferred the flowers of Leguminosae. Moreover, the bees of Apidae, except oligolectic species, visited also dominantly various flowers of Compositae, Rosaceae, Labiatae, Caprifoliaceae, and so on (Tables 5 and 6). (7) Apoidea includes numerous species belonging to various grades of morphological and ethological development, although they all seem to take part in pollination of both cultivated and wild plants. It is supposed that all these bees and entomophilous flowers go on well with each other in natural condition only when bees and flowers of various grades of development are present. Eventually it may be concluded that all bee species should be preserved and be kept not to be prevented in their natural multiplication, and consequently that a favorable environment with plentiful flora of flowering plants should be preserved. The more abundant species of bee pollinators and entomophilous flowers the habitat comprises, the better the relation between them may be expected. Only under such environment, therefore, the pollination may be supposed to be carried out normally by special species of bees suitable for respective species of the so-called useful plants.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 49-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 50-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. iii-iv
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1961 年 11 巻 1 号 p. v-vii
    発行日: 1961/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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