The rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta and the langur, Presbytis entellus were observed around four Indian cities, more particularly at Jaipur. The former lives near human dwellings but the latter are found on the outskirts of the cities. Fluctuations in the numbers of rhesus of various age groups have been discussed. The critical size of a Macaca troop appears to be 50 to 70 individuals. Macaca overlord allows subleaders in its troop but langurs do not tolerate any sexually potent male in the troop. Differences in the modes of splitting of the troops in both the species of monkeys have been described. Observations on the mating behaviour of rhesus have been made. Monkeys breed twice a year and have definite breeding season.
1. The results of pollen analyses of the Miocene lignite samples obtained from the Daishima Formation of the Iwafune (Niigata Pref.) coal field are reported. 2. According to the pollen-analytical studies the plant grouping of Budo bed and that of Osudo bed were compared. Pollen grains of such extinct trees as Quercus and Taxodium are found predominantly in the Budo bed and Quercus, Pinus and Cunninghamia in the Osudo bed. The climate during deposition of the Budo bed is thought to have been warmer and drier than when the Osudo bed was deposited.
The islet of Kamuishu, one of the most myaterious places in Akan National Park, lies near the center of Lake Mashu (351m). It is located at 43°34′37″NL and 144°31′53″EL. Up to the present, no investigation has been reported on the vegetation of this islet. Fortunately, the writers had an opportunity to research the vegetation of this islet during the 22nd to 24th of June in 1960. The islet is composed of Quartz Andesite, in an emerged part of a central cone of the Mashu Caldera. It is surrounded by cliffs and in the northeast to south side is a steep cliff (15〜25m) which faces directly the lake. There is a rather narrow gravel shore extending in south-west to west direction in front of the cliff. The humus layer of the islet measures only 5〜10cm in the deepest part. The vegetation is mainly composed of the mixed forest dominated by Betula Ermani and Abies sachalinensis, the height of which ranges from 2 to 13m. Generally, the forest floor if covered by the shrub layer(1〜2m) dominated by Rhododendron dauricum and associated with Rhododendron Tschonoskii, Acer Ukurunduense, Menziesia pentandra, Leucothoe Grayana var. jezoensis. Sometimes Hydrangea paniculata var. intermedia forms a pure society. On the other hand, the herb layer is rather poor in species and number. The topography of this islet is not so convenient for research on the vegetation. Only two belt-transects, namely[a]and[b], and one quadrat (5m×5m), namely[A], were taken. Belt-transect[a]shows the cross section of the vegetation ; Belt-transect[b]the longitudinal section ; and Quadrat[A]situated in the Abies sachalinensis grove is the special community on this islet.
The authors (1953) reported on the weeding effects to Oryza sativa var. terrestris, especially regarding the suitable time of weeding. In this paper the mutual influences between the same crop and weeds concerning the time of sowing and weeding based on the randomized blocks of three recapitulations (Fig. 1) are discussed. The flora and life-forms of weeds in the plots (Tables 1,2) are of a typical early stage of the secondary succession. The homogeneity and dominance (Tables 3〜6) show the growth of weeds as C>B>A. In the culture of the upland rice (Tables 7〜10,Fig. 2), the later the sowing time is, the better the germination and growth are. However the difference of the growth according to the sowing time decreases in a short time, and the yield shows the tendency of A>B>C in each weeding treatment. That the yield of the plot 2 is larger than that of the plot 1 in the treatment A suggests that the weeds may influence beneficially the yield at certain density. The weeds existing for an equal period in the farmland have a greater harmful effect against the crop as the sowing time is delayed.
In Japan, the coastal vegetation changes its structure during the time of typhoons. The damages are caused by the wind-borne salt spray ; by the mechanical action of billows; the invasion of saline water ; and by the sand-movement by the wind. The damage by salt-spray prevents therophyte from advancing towards the coast line but scarcely influences the psammophyte. The order of tolerance to the saline-water damage does not correspond to the order of zonal distribution of the plants. From these observations, it is not to say that the damages by salt-spray and sea-water-invasion are most effective to change the structure of the coastal vegetation.