Before the Ise-wan Typhoon (September 1959), the Yoshino River (Nara Prefecture) had the largest standing crops of aquatic insects known in Japanese streams. However, the aquatic insect communities were destroyed considerably by the Typhoon. We studied this river in September 1963,four years after the Typhoon, and wish to report the results and to compare them with the data of TSUDA and GOSE (1953,1954), who studied this river in 1953,six years before the Typhoon. The results are summarized as follows : 1. In August 1953,six years before Ise-wan Typhoon, the standing crop of the station "Koshibe" was 32 g per 0.25m^2 in a wet sample. But in September 1963 the standing crop of this station was only 0.5g. Also the other stations had far less standing crops in 1963 than in 1953. 2. In 1953,the net-spinner's percentage ("net-spinner's percentage" means the rate of the weight of the net-spinners to the total weight of benthic insects) of the station "Koshibe" and the station "Kawaraya" were 80〜95 per cent. But in 1963,the net-spinners percentage were 42〜73 per cent, and the percentage of the creepers were more in 1963 than in 1953. 3. In 1953,among the net-spinners Parastenopsyche sauteri (Stenopsychidae) was dominant in this river. In 1963,however, Hydropsyche ulmeri (Hydropsychidae) was dominant in the same river.
In an orphan colony of the Amazonian subterranean stingless bee, Partamona (Partamona) testacea testacea (KLUG), the laying workers appeared during a limited period and as a limited portion of the total population, that is, in the workers concentrated above the brood combs. The process of provisioning and oviposition can, except for the absence of the participation of the queen, more or less be comparable to that found in the queenright colonies of other stingless bee species, but characterized by a marked disintegration of behavior such as more than one oviposition in the same brood cell, sealing of cells without eggs, marked delay of sealing, oviposition followed by worker cophagy and a second oviposition, etc. A brief consideration was made about the laying workers of diverse species of stingless bees so far observed.
The effects of the seed coverings on water absorption of the seeds of beach plants, which are considered as xerophytes (Elymus mollis, Carex kobomugi, Carex pumila and Glehnia littoralis), were investigated in comparison with the seeds of the mesophytic ruderal grasses (Agropyron tsukushiense and Bromus catharticus) and of a mountain sedge (Carex albata). When the seeds with covering absorbed a little water, the water uptake of the beach plant seeds is favoured by the presence of their seed coverings. In the case of which water was sufficiently given to the seeds, there is little influence of the seed covering on the water uptake of the seeds. As for the seeds covered with a low moisture content, the moisture content of the seed covering is less than one of the proper seed. While, the covered seeds which sufficiently absorbed water increase remarkably in moisture content of the seed covering, and the seeds of beach plants display a very high value of the ratio of the seed covering to the proper seed in total amount of moisture as compared with ones of the mesophytes, and their seed coverings have a high water absorbing capacity. As for the structure of the seed covering, the beach plants are fit for absorption of water.
The catches of fishes in number by gill nets in the Sarutani Reservoir which was filled in 1956,were in vestigated in August, 1963. The contents of the catch at Sakamoto as well as at Sakamoto-ichiba in 1963 were similar to that in 1962 (Figs. 1 and 2). This result confirms the estimation stated in the previous paper that the composition in number of fish fauna in the reservoir changed to that of the stagnant water type from that of the running water type which is seen in the tributary at present. Considerings that the yearlings are not able to be catched by gill nets in August, the above mentioned change took place from 1960 to 1962.
Changes of the river pool ecosystem may be classified by its environment and insect communities into two types, namely rapid type→pool type and pool type→rapid type. The change of the dominant species of the former type is Ecdyonurus yoshidae→Potamanthus kamonis and the latter is Potamanthus kamonis→Ecdyonurus yoshidae→Epeorus latifolium. These changes seem to correlate with the change of the river bed, especially the current and substratum, which are brought about by floods.
To detect the rumen ciliates from the outside of their host, the faeces of both sheep and cow and the living or non-living particles adhered to clover were incubated in the culture medium containing hay and wheat flour (Table 2), in which the rumen ciliates thrived. This experiment resulted in finding no viable organisms. The survival time of the ciliates in the rumen fluid dilluted by MC DOUGAHL's artificial saliva under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. The result is that the ciliates are able to tolerate the mixture of saliva and exposure to air, at least within six hours (Tables 4 and 5). From the above-mentioned results, it seemed that the rumen ciliates are passed from animal to animal by direct transfer through the saliva containing the active organisms and that the resistant cysts or viable rumen ciliate forms are not present either in the food or faeces.
The development of rumen ciliates has been followed by microscopic observations of the rumen fluid from the young calf kept on each of such different rations as hay, dried native grass and concentrates, after weaning. Entodinium appeared at first, followed by Diplodinium invariably. Isotricha became established shortly after Diplodinium in hay-fed calf. The result in Fig. 1 seems to show that the concentrates-fed calf has a tendency to retard the development of Entodinium and to hasten that of Diplodinium.