The author caught small mammals in the Okushibu district situated in the subalpine forest of the Yatsugatake range from May, 1963,to April, 1965,and collected the fleas from them. Ten species of small mammals were caught ; and C. andersoni, A. argenteus, D. pilirostris and S. shinto were characteristic ones of this district. Thirteen species of fleas were recorded from these hosts. The fleas were most abundant on D. pilirostris, moderate on C. andersoni and S. shinto, and very few occurred on A. argenteus. The flea-index for the total of 665 examined hosts was 0.9. The type of the distribution of the fleas on the host animals was determined as negative binominal distribution. As to the seasonal occurrence of the fleas, five species were winter fleas, namely, S. montana, S. tokudai, P. miyama, P. udagawai and C. striata and were found in the months between October and May. Although there were no summer fleas, H. ozeana and P. nippon were observed to be more common in the warmer months. And H. ozeana was like a rival flea of the two winter fleas of the genus Stenoponia. There was another category of seasonal occurrence, containing D. coreana and M. andersoni which were collected both in warmer months and in colder months. The host-flea relationships were also studied. Only exceptionally was a species of flea collected from only one host species. The comparison of numbers of the fleas obtained with those of the hosts examined, however, revealed the degree of host specificity. Of twelve fleas, nine had only one true host, two had two true hosts and only one flea had more than three true hosts.
This report deals with, following the preceding one, the actions, living place, intraspecific connection, territory, productive rate and share of between male and female in the breeding season of the Red-cheeked Myna (Sturnia philippensis), based on the results of the outdoor observations for the purpose of studing the life history of the birds in the campus of the College of Education of the Shinshu University in Nagano City located in the middle part of the Zenkoji basin in Nagano Prefecture from 1963 to 1964. Most of the life history during the breeding season of the bird is described based upon the observation of one nest in 1964.
Features of the adaptablity to the density was compared for two species of bean weevils, C. chinensis L. and C. rhodesianus Pic (Species name is not yet verified by taxonomist). Why the types of reproduction curve are different for these two species was analyzed experimentally (Utida 1959a). The experiment was conducted under the condition of 30℃, 75 per cent R.H. and the 16hr. photo-period of illumination. Numbers of deposited eggs per bean and numbers of hatched eggs per bean were counted at two weeks after the introduction of the adults. The numbers of adults emerged from a single bean was also counted after all the adults died. The rise in mortality towards low densities was particularly remarkable in C. rhodesianus than in C. chinensis at any life stages. Though the single larva of C. chinensis can develope in a bean, that of C. rhodesianus was subjected to high mortality at such situation and the best survival rate was obtained at the density of more than 4 larvae per bean. In the low densities the adult of C. chinensis could still mate, but that of C. rhodesianus seemed to mate with difficulty. Therefore, the percentage of un-fertilized eggs in C. rhodesianus increased in low densities. On the other hand, in C. chinensis the death by the trampling was more important. Random-distribution of the egg was observed at a higher density in C. chinensis has ability to distinguish beans on which the eggs were deposited and undeposited than that of C. rhodesianus. This difference gave some effects on the distribution of the leavae hatched from a bean. Though the relation between the adult density and the number of deposited eggs per bean was almost the same for both species through the whole range of parent densities, the relation of the adult density to the numeber of hatched eggs per bean was different for both species. These facts seem to give an explanation why the population growth is slower in C. rhodesianus than in C. chinensis. It was shown that the heighest number of adults which is able to emerge from a bean is limited by the size of bean. Number of adults was regulated by the larval density in each bean. When number of hatched eggs per bean was 9,number of adults emerged from a bean became to be at certain level which is limited by the size of bean. When number of hatched eggs exceeded 9 per bean, number of adults emerged per bean did not increase in C. rhodesianus but continued to increase in C. chinensis. On the basis of these assumptions, the processes responsible to the difference in types of reproduction curves were discussed. The results mentioned above suggest that C. chinensis is opposite in many aspects of its ecology to C. rhodesianus. Significance of adaptation in ecological characters in the natural regulation of animal numbers was discussed briefly in relation to Lack's associated adaptation(Lack 1965).
Hinuma (36°16'N, 140°30'E) is a small brackish water lake situated in the Kanto District, central Japan. A survey of the bottom fauna of the lake was carried out in April 1963. As the result, 23 species of macro benthic animals were collected (Table 2). Two species of polychaete worms, one species of crab and one species of isopod crustacea were added to the fauna by the supplementary collection in the littoral zone of the lake. Except for one fresh water component, Tubificidae sp., all are brackish or euryhaline species of marine origin. One species of cumacean crustacea seems to be new to science, and a small brackish polychaete, Prinospio japonica, is recorded for the first time the Pacific coast of Japan. The benthic communities are as follows ; I. Reed marsh ; Assiminea japonica-Neanthes diversicolor community, II. Coastal shallow zone ; Corbicula japonica-Neanthes diversicolor community, III. Flat bottom of the main part ; Prionospio japonicus community, a. Western part ; Tubiflcidae sp. present, b. Central part ; Benthos is poor both in quality and quantity, c. Eastern part ; Tubificidae sp. absent. Benthic communities of Lake Hinuma are compared with that of the brackish lakes in Japan, and it is pointed out that the Prionospio japonicus community in Lake Hinuma is a unique one.
This review is intended to introduce an outline of the results of community metabolism studies on various forest ecosystems of the Western Pacific area made by Japanese investigators in these past ten years. In 1955,SATOO opened this line of research by publishing his first report(65)on the productivity of artificial plantations in this country. A few years later, in 1957 and 1958,four groups of ecologists and forest scientists including ourselves began almost simultaneously to follow him, and the fields of study were expanded to include various types of natural and artificial vegetation ranging from subarctic conifer forests of Hokkaido to the tropical jungle of Southeast Asia. Since that time, more than one hundred stands belonging to some forty different forest types have been investigated, of course mostly within Japan Proper, but also in the Ryukyus(40), Thailand(21,22,24,42,44-47,93,100)and Cambodia(23). Steady progress has been made in the methodology for analysing the metabolism of forest community. These studies were, therefore, not always based on one and the same method, making it difficult to compare the results obtained by different authors. Thus the contents of this review are more or less tentative ; yet we hope, this may well be a useful starting point for more advanced studies to be made under the framework of the International Biological Programme.