IMAMURA, Shinji (Zoological Institute, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University). 1978. Adult transport in a supercolony of Formica (Formica) yessensis Forel, with special reference to its relation with digging. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 73-84. Adult transport between nests was studied in a supercolony of Formica (Formica) yessensis Forel at Ishikari Shore, Hokkaido, Japan, throughout the ant active seasons in 1973-'75. Although transport occurs in all seasons, its intensity fluctuates scasonally with one conspicuous peak in spring. Nests receiving transports (target nests) usually possess some, or many digging workers, while nests emitting transports (original nests) are often without diggers. On the basis of observations under natural conditions and in the laboratory, it is suggested that the trnsportees strart digging in the target nests. Transport thus seems useful in the expansion of target nests.
KAWANISHI, Masaoki (Nat.Inst.Genet., Mishima). 1978 An ecological note on Drosophila oshimai. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 97-99. The seasonal activity, feeding site in nature and developmental time in the laboratory were examined for Drosophila (Sophophora) oshimai CHOO et NAKAMURA. The life history of this species was closely associated with the flowers of Camellia sasanqua.
WATANABE, Mamoru (Lab.Forest Zool., Fac.Agri., Tokyo Univ., Tokyo). 1978. Adult movements and resident ratios of the black-veined white Aporia crataegi, in a hilly region. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 101-109. Movements and resident ratios of the black-veined white, Aporia crataegi, were investigated by means of the mark-and-recapture method in Hokkaido, 1975. The habitats of the butterflies were divided into three categories in accordance with vegetation and topograhy characteristics. On sunny days the puddling, feeding and temporary movements of males were observed. The flight of males was not random, they often stayed in the neighborhood of the host tree of larvae to wait for emerging females. The number of females captured was much smaller than that of males. Weather conditions influenced the daily population sizes and the resident ratios of males. There seemed to be no effective barriers for their movements within the study area. Therefore, the population in this study area might be a part of a large single population scattered in a wider area.
NAKANE, Kaneyuki (Dep.Biol., Fac.Sci., Osaka City Univ., Osaka) & SHINOZAKI, Kichiro (Sci.Educ.Inst.Sakai City, Sakai). 1978. A mathematical model of the behavior and vertical distribution of organic carbon in forest soils. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 111-122. A new model of the behavior of organic carbon in forest soils was proposed, taking the decomposition and downward transportation of soil organic matter into consideration, to interpret the vertical distribution of carbon concentration in a soil profile. The vertical distribution curve of soil carbon concentration derived from the model, proved to fit very closely the data obtained in various forest types of Japan and Southeast Asia. The decomposition rate and transportation factor were calculated from the model and discussed in relation to environmental conditions. The model had the advantages over hitherto proposed formulations, in its wider applicability and sound physical basis as well as its excellent fitness to a variety of field data.
AIZAKI, MORIHIRO (Dep.Biol., Fac.Sci., Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Tokyo). 1978. Seasonal changes in standing crop and production of periphyton in the Tamagawa River. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 123-134. Seasonal changes in standing crop and primary production of periphyton community were measured in the Tamagawa River. Standing crop and production rate of periphyton community were always larger in the midstream where the river water is heavilypolluted by municipal sewage, compared to the data obtained upstream where the river water is only scaroely polluted. The standing crop of periphyton in the midstream region fluctuated violently throughout the year except in winter, e.g.chlorophyll a fluctuated between 100 and 500 mg/m^2. Photosynthetic rates fluctuated also throughout the year except in winter. The range of fluctuation of gross production was 0.53-19.2 g O_2/m^2.day. The annual gross production during June 1973 to May 1974 was estirpated to be ca. 2000 g O_2/m^2. It was concluded from these data that the present condition of the midstream of the Tamagawa River seems to be near the limit of active growth of sessile algae.
ARAI, Tetsuo (Lab.Entomol., Fac.Agr., Hirosaki Univ., Hirosaki). 1978. Effects of environmental conditions on the wing form and growth in Gryllodes sigillatus WALKER (Orthoptera : Gryllidae).Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 135-142. The wing form and growth in Gryllodes sigillatus WALKER were observed under various conditions of temperature, photoperiod, and rearing density. The incidence of macropterous adults under crowded conditions increased raising temperature and density. Macropterous adults appeared, however, even under isolated conditions, if adequate photoperiodic and temperature stimuli were provided. The effect of photoperiod on the induction of macropterous form differed at different temperature. Namely, the incidence of macropterous form was generally low at 25℃ irrespective of photoperiod, but it increased in LD 13 : 11,19 : 5-23 : 1 at 30℃ and LD 4 : 20-7 : 17,13 : 11,21 : 3-23 : 1 at 35℃. On the other hand, the effect of photoperiod on nymphal growth was not detected at 30 and 35℃, but a long day type response was discernible at 25℃ at least within the range of natural photoperiods. The macropterous form took a longer time to mature than the micropterous form at 35℃. The nymphal development under isolated conditions was remarkably delayed by a low temperature (27℃) and short day-length (LD 11 : 13).
UMEZU, Yukio (Midorigaoka Middle School, Ooita) 1978. Mapping of air pollution intensity by epiphytic bryophyte and lichen communities in heavy industry region. Jap.J.Ecol., 28 : 143-154. From the phytosociological table of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens in a climax forest ((Symploco lucidae-Shiietum cuspidatae) it was concluded that Parmelio-Sematophylletum japonici, Heteroscyphetum plani and Isopterygletum pohliaecarpi are the associations found in the natural atmospheric condition and most susceptible to air pollution. Glyphomitrletum humillimi and Haplohymenietum pseudo-tristis are much more tolerant. In the area near the source of pollution thrive Ptycoleus nipponicus-Venturiella sinensis and Pohlia-Scopelophila cataractae-community. Index of air purity was calculated from the coverage of species by means of the method proposed by TUXEN & ELLENBERG (1937) in each community. As the result of it, five zones of pollution intensity were discriminated, and they were illustrated in a map.