Although lianas (woody climbers) are a phylogenetically and functionally important group of land plants, there is very little information on individual-scale liana growth in the field. Based on previous studies of temperate liana species, this study investigated how liana plants grow to the forest canopy. The paper discusses the potential benefits and costs associated with the host-dependent support strategy. The host-dependent support habit enables plants to reduce resource investments in mechanical tissues, thereby attaining greater stem extension every year, while maintaining a large leaf-to-stem mass ratio. These features could be a great advantage in competition for light or growth in shady environments. However, this habit requires a continuous search for host structures, and plants can be damaged and even fall to the ground when the hosts collapse. These factors, representing the costs and risks associated with host-dependent growth, may limit plant growth over protracted periods.
Foraging activity differs among the larvae of mosquito species owing to differences in predation pressure. Low foraging activity is considered a form of anti-predatory behavior. This study evaluated the sub-lethal effects of larvivorous fish on the foraging activity of the larvae of three mosquito species that breed in different habitats: Culex tritaeniorhynchus (wetland breeder), Culex pipiens pallens (large-container breeder), and Aedes albopictus (small-container breeder). To examine the effects of larvivorous fish cues on larval behavior, experiments were conducted in the absence and presence of a larvivorous fish cue. Although larval activity was lower in the presence of the larvivorous fish cue than in its absence in all three species, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. pipiens responded to the cue more strongly than A. albopictus, with the former showing the strongest response and C. pipiens showing a moderate response. These behavioral observations could be used in educational materials for one example of anti-predatory strategy of prey animals in high school science classes.