The important properties of products dyed in black using plant dyestuffs are the color deepness and the enough fastness to light. The novel dyeing technique using gallnuts (Chinese gallotannin) combined with mordanting with vanadium compounds was developed and the optimum mordanting conditions were clarified in order to achieve the black-dyeing with natural dyestuffs. The method using gallnuts is applicable to the dyeing of silk, wool and nylon fibers using gallnuts. However, the cellulose-based materials have not been dyed by the vanadium-mordanted technique. The chemical modifications of cellulose-based materials were made for improving the dyeability in the study. The results show that vanadium ion is adsorbed onto the cationic or carboxylated cellulose pulp, and the pulp samples are dyed in dark color with gallnuts. The leveling property of the dyed cationic cellulose pulp is higher than that of the carboxylated one. Furthermore, it was found that cellulose fibers are dyed in deep black with gallnuts and they show higher color fastness to light by the combination of the cationisation and vanadium-mordant.
In order to design brassieres (bras) which effectively control breast vibration, the vibration of breasts when wearing a bra was measured using high speed cameras during walking, running and jumping. The subjects consisted of six young females with different cup sizes. The bra patterns were made based on the size and shape of each subject's breast, and the underbust of bras in three different sizes. The following results were obtained: 1. The smaller the underbust size of bras, the higher the clothing pressure, the side part of the underbust having the highest clothing pressure; 2. Through amplitude and average acceleration, the vibration prevention effect of bras was shown to be in the vertical direction during jumping; the vertical amplitude and average acceleration of the L group were collectively larger than those of the M group; 3. Average acceleration showed a positive correlation with breast size in the vertical direction during running or jumping, and a positive correlation with point N vibration in the horizontal direction; and 4. The vibration loci of the breast and brassiere were almost the same, and the difference of dislocation between them in different underbust sizes was small.