TiN films were prepared on SK 5 and glass substrates by RF ion plating at various values of nitrogen pressure, bias voltage and RF power. The effects of these process parameters on the X-ray intensity and composition data of the films were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelection spectroscopy (XPS). At higher nitrogen pressure, the TiN film surface was predominantly parallel to (200) for steel substrates and to (111) for glass. At lower bias voltage and lower RF power, the (111) orientation was strongly preferred for both substrates, while at higher bias voltage and higher RF power, the film surface was predominantly parallel to (200) for steel substrates and (111) for glass. It was found that these changes in film orientation can be explained by a gas adsorptive inhibition model, even for insulating substrates.
This paper presents the mechanical characteristics and structures of titanium nitride (TiN) films formed by reactive sputter deposition. TiN films formed at N2 partial pressures below 2.0×10-3Pa are almost pure titanium and have a fibrous structure. It is thought that nitrogen collects in the dislocations. Films formed at N2 partial pressure of 2.0×10-3Pa were hardest and had the lowest coefficients of friction. They had a double structures, with a fine-grain structure above a columnular structure and it is thought that hardness was due to the existence of the fine-grain structure. Films formed at N2 partial pressure above 2.0×10-3Pa had a columnular structure.
Antimony films were formed by electroless plating from a bath containing titanium trichloride as the reducing agent. The films were autocatalytically deposited to the intended thickness on the surface of non-conductive substrates activated by palladium. The optimum conditions lay in the pH range of 6.5∼8.5 at a temperature of 20°C, and the preferable bath composition was disodium EDTA 0.08M, trisodium citrate 0.32M, NTA 0.10M, antimony trichloride 0.08M and titanium trichloride 0.04M. It was observed from X-ray diffraction analysis that the crystal structure of the deposited films were greatly affected by plating conditions, especially pH, and films predominately oriented to the (006), (110) and (012) planes were formed at pH of 7.0∼7.5, 8.0 and 8.5, respectively.
Plating failures such as skip plating and miss plating in small through holes on a printed circuit board can be eliminated by modification of the acceleration solution. These failures were greatly diminished without adhesion failure between the deposited copper and copper foil by the addition of a reducing agent such as hydrazine sulfate, hydroxylamine sulfate, DMAB or sodium hypophosphite into the sulfuric acid acceleration solution. Anodic polarization curves showed that the activity of the palladium catalyst was increased by these reducing agents. Conditioning treatment with a cation-based surface active agent enhanced the coverage of the palladium catalyst on the glass layer and lead to avoidance of these failures. Control of the dissolved oxygen in the electroless copper solution was also effective in suppressing these phenomena.
The effects of agitation and additives on nickel electrodeposition from Watt's bath were investigated by interfacial AC impedance technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also used to investigate the crystal orientation and the morphology. Without agitation, there was a single capacitive loop on the high-frequency side, and a single inductive loop and a single capacitive loop on the low-frequency side of the Cole-Cole plot. The low-frequency capacitive loop became larger relative to the other loops at higher current densities, but disappeared with agitation. This is attributed to the adsorption-desorption reaction of molecular hydrogen. When saccharin and 2-butyne-1, 4-diol were added together to the solution, finer crystals were obtained. The crystals had a (111) preferred orientation, which became even higher when the bath was agitated. The nickel deposits had a layered structure due to the adsorption-desorption of hydrogen. The thickness of layer spacings decreased at higher current densities, but increased with agitation.
Electrodeposited composites of Ni-metallic Al particles about 9μm in diameter have been successfully prepared in the form of flat, 400μm-thick films ranging in composition from 0 to 28.3at% Al. The films were then heated at 800°C for 3h. The structures and hardness of the resultant films were then studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray microanalysis, and measurement of Vickers hardness from room temperature to 750°C. It was found that the matrix and the particles reacted readily to form stable phases: the Ni-5at% Al alloy was a single-phase alloy of fcc solid solution; the Ni-16 and 17at% Al alloys were dual phase alloys of fcc solid solution and Ni3Al; the Ni-25at% Al alloy was a single phase alloy of Ni3Al; and the Ni-28.3at% Al alloy was a dual phase alloy of Ni3Al and NiAl. All the alloys contained small Al2O3 particles, which were found initially to be consist of hydroxide films covering metallic Al particles. The room-temperature hardness of the alloys increased with the Al content. Hot hardness measurement of Ni-60vol% Ni3Al alloy showed an inverse temperature dependence of hardness, which is characteristic of the Ni3Al phase.
The effect of magnetic field on the morphology of an initially electrodeposited nickel surface was investigated by Scanning Tunnel Microscopy (STM). A flake structure was observed under a horizontal magnetic field. However, the flake structure was not observed under a vertical magnetic field. This tendency is attributed to differences in the magnitude of the exerted electromagnetic force (Lorentz's force) on the nickel ions and to the magnetic properties of nickel.