The optical and electronic performance of zinc oxide nanoparticles, which are widely used as optical and electronic materials, depends on the nanoparticle properties. The particle size is a particularly important factor affecting material properties. This study was conducted to elucidate the relation between the size of nanoparticles synthesized by solution plasma and each of several plasma formation parameters such as applied voltage, pulse width, and repetition frequency. The zinc electrodes were used to generate solution plasma. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in solution plasma using a sputtering process. The synthesized nanoparticle shape was non-spherical. The nanoparticles were smaller than 100 nm along the long axis. Electrode sputtering occurred mainly on the cathode electrode. Therefore, positive ions in the solution plasma, e.g. H2O+ and H3O+, affect the zinc oxide nanoparticle formation. However, the particle size was correlated with the applied voltage between electrodes, not with the pulse width or pulse repetition frequency.
Nanocarbons were synthesized from benzene - water - sodium dodecyl sulfate（SDS）and benzene-（water-ethanol）-SDS systems using solution plasma. The stabilized emulsion formed in the benzene-water-SDS and benzene-（water-ethanol）-SDS. The specific surface areas of nanocarbons synthesized from benzene-water-SDS increased with the increase of the SDS concentration, although their variation was not great. By contrast, the surface areas of nanocarbons synthesized from benzene-（water-ethanol）-SDS were altered considerably compared to the variation in benzene-（water-ethanol）-SDS system. The maximum specific surface area was 387 m2/g. The minimum averaged pore size was 13.5 nm when the ratio of ethanol to water was 0.5. That fact suggests that the emulsion size of 50-100 nm influences the meso-structures of the obtained carbon in solution plasma processes.
Cyclic olefin polymer（COP）has been applied as a high performance resin material in diverse fields. Ultraviolet（UV）modification treatment and an electroless plating method are effective for metallization on the COP surface. As described in this paper, vacuum UV（VUV, wavelength < 200 nm）exposure through a photomask was used for selective modification on the COP surface. Surface properties of the surface modification were evaluated using surface energy analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy（FT-IR）and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy （XPS）. VUV exposure was expected to cause polymer chain cleavage and to increase oxidized moieties. Some of the oxidatively cleaved material of lower molecular weight might then be extracted from the modified layer by alkaline treatment. Palladium（II）-amino acid complex as a catalyst for electroless plating was adsorbed selectively onto a VUV-modified layer of the COP surface. Consequently, the electroless plating reaction progressed on the modified area. Finally, the deposited metal patterns with line width of a few micrometers on the COP surface were formed through photomasking.