This study discusses the evaluation of influences on the drainage capacity of a 100A drainage stack system with an air admittance valve by means of the drainage capacity prediction method, which was previously proposed, while looking into the effectiveness of the method. The study also aims to propose a method to reduce labour and cost incurred by drainage capacity experiments.
This study discusses the evaluation of influences on the drainage capacity of a drainage stack system with an air admittance valves by means of the drainage capacity prediction method. The study also aims to propose a method to reduce labor and cost incurred by drainage capacity experiments. Vent characteristics of five commonly available air admittance valves of distinctively different pipe size was clarified and the results acquired from vent characteristics were applied to the previously proposed drainage capacity prediction method.
This study is aimed at performing improvement of the ability for drainage and grasp of the pressure in the pipe theoretically with the drainage system which set up Air Admittance Valves to horizontal fixture branch vent. This paper establishes the confirmation of the setting position of the relaxation of effective pressure and prediction of pipe pressure with the drainage system which set up Air Admittance Valves to one horizontal branch pipe vent. One is establishes the grasp and a duct line network model of the pressure in the pipe with the drainage system which set up Air Admittance Valves to two horizontal fixture branch vent.
The study discusses the drainage performance evaluation and the design method of horizontal drainage pipe systems with drainage header piping, which are applied to SI housing units. the validity of the drainage performance evaluation method using the laboratory experiment was discussed based on field experimental work. This paper described about drainage piping plan and performance evaluation technique
The study discusses the drainage performance evaluation and the design method of horizontal drainage pipe systems with drainage header piping, which are applied to SI housing units. the validity of the drainage performance evaluation method using the laboratory experiment was discussed based on field experimental work. This paper describe about result of the drainage Performance Evaluation with Real Existence residential Unit
We developed a new drainpipe with vortex chamber in order to free from the danger of getting caught in drainpipe of swimming pool. This new drainpipe can control the suction force with the working of vortex flow. In previous report, the basic properties of the drainpipe were analyzed by using small size test model. But the property of actual size drainpipe remained unexplained. So, in this study, we performed the characteristic experiment by using actual size test apparatus. As the result of this test, it became clear that the knowledge obtained by small model can be applied to the actual size drainpipe.
A siphon drainage system is a full-water flow drainage system using small diameter pipes. Furthermore this system is a slopeless so that it harnesses the siphonage. Therefore, the cross-piping and the piping traps are applicable to this system. So, in this paper, in order to put their systems to practical use, we studied resistance coefficient of the cross-piping and the seal strength of piping traps.
In this paper I studied on experimental studies on characteristics of siphon drainage system. To know the discharge characteristics of siphon discharge system, the characteristics of foundational siphon system which doesn't have trap and cross piping, and pipe trap and cross piping model siphon system which has pipe trap and cross piping were analyzed.
In the previous report, we studied the discharge characteristics of foundational siphon drainage system which didn't have a trap or cross piping. In this paper, we recreated siphon drainage systems in previous paper (Part4) using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). And these conclusions were compared to the characteristics of filled flow in previous paper. Consequently, we confirmed the validity of CFD analysis, and studied the characteristic of filled flow in various piping.
Small-diameter flexible plastic pipes, used in hot and cold water piping, were suggested to be also suitable for piping of siphon drainage system. In this paper, we investigate the test method of plastic-pipes for drainage use and evaluate the chemical corrosion resistance of polybuthylene-pipe. Furthermore, we assay the polybuthylene-pipe actually used for siphon drainage in our company's apartment.
We applied the no incline drain system consisting of a slim polyvinyl chloride pipe and the bend pipes to the drainage of the kitchen of two houses, and investigated them periodically. The drainage flowed with over 35L/minute at first, but the pipes choked by the dirt like paste before long. Its chief ingredient is more of protein than oil, so it is regarded as a microbe and the secretion. We changed the pipe for cross-linked polyethylene pipes, but they were ineffective. It may be hard to become choking, if you connect the perpendicular pipe under a horizontal pipe.
In the previous reports, we defined the condition and specification of the siphon drainage system required in the case of installing in the new-construction multistory residence. To meet the requirements, we proposed and developed the original siphon drainage system equipped with temporary tank. In this paper, we report the first research on evaluating our system practicality in actual use at our company's apartment.
The improvement of the energy systems is requested. Think about an advanced energy systems "Energy interchanging systems among buildings" by a real example. Three systems are set; previous systems, Equipment update systems, and Energy interchanging systems. Compared these systems, and analyzed the effect of the introduction of the Energy Interchanging Systems. Consequently, primary energy is reduced 9%, and CO_2 is reduced 13%.
It was compared and examined in cooling water pipe of a refrigeration machine system with the former "the pipe diameter selecting method which made the limit the standard" and "the pipe diameter selecting method which had CO_2 emission reduction for its object". There is critical flow velocity in the current velocity in the laying of the pipes more than a row by running water and a corrosion control.
The hospital is a representative example of the energy many consumption building type. So first for consideration to the global environment at the planning of this project(R hospital in Chiba pref), I introduced energy-saving technique positively. First of all I planned totally electrified heating and cooling system. I report a summary about a heating and cooling system by this report.
I assign a focus to ground source HP system on this report, and show results of the numerical analysis about the energy-saving effect by this system. I introduce the progress of real construction. I report about the result of thermal response test that I carried out to predict performance after the completion.
Heat pump system's capacity is usually designed using the peak load simulation, however the peak load hardly occurs. Therefore at most time, heat pump is forced to operate inefficiently. This paper proposed the small buffer tank system and shows its effect of saving energy and cutting running cost with the facile estimation tool by steady cooling load simulation. And this paper also shows economical evaluation of the proposed system by the result of benefit by cost.
In recent years, the inverter control technology for centrifugal chillers has been improving spectacularly. The purpose of this first report is to clarify the performance of the inverter centrifugal chiller using actual measured data taking into account uncertainness of each value. Not only the rating point performance but also partial load points performance are evaluated. Furthermore, by using characteristic of the centrifugal compressor, we identify the performance characteristic of the inverter centrifugal chiller. For air-conditioning system use, seasonal performances were fundamental to the evaluation of energy saving. we can describe appropriate observations about the seasonal performance by using measured data which evaluate uncertainness
This paper suggests an operation method for the latest fixed-speed and variable-speed chillers based on characteristics that include energy conservation. The effects of new planning and operation method suited for the load of air conditioning heat source systems are shown in the cases of the variable-speed chillers and the combination cases of the variable-speed and fixed-speed chillers. High-performance data based on actual measurements are used to evaluate the energy conservation. In addition, this paper provides a new planning and operating method for a whole heat source system, including a new estimation method of cooling tower performance, which is a very important element.
Newspaper printing factory has a lot of cooling loads generated from printing machine which has a large electricity capacity. We can reduce its energy consumption largely by both introducing high-efficiency heat source system and operating the system properly. We measured air-conditioning load and electivity quality of heat source system in newspaper printing factory with high-efficiency heat source system for one year to analysis the system efficiency. The results show that the system has been worked appropriately. The COP of free cooling with cooling tower is 11.0 on an average. The annual primary energy consumption is 6,755 MJ per total floor.
For better efficient operation, heat source system simulation is developed and considered about the combination of heating source equipments, cooling water temperature and capacity usage ratio of free cooling. Judging from simulation results, the quantity control is changed when low cooling load arises in transitional season and free cooling utilization increases for the proper setting of chilled water temperature in winter.
In this paper, the improvement methods have been introduced to the existing building. The methods can reduce the energy consumption 251.4MJ/m^2/year and carbon-dioxide emissions 8.8kg-CO_2/m^2/year, compared to the previous heat source system operation. It is also evaluated high efficient heat source equipments, free cooling, and pump control by the inverter as saving energy adequately. And the energy saving performance is compared with other newspaper printing factories.
The purpose of this study is to grasp and clarify quantitatively, the energy saving effectiveness of a heat source system with high efficiency technology, in which inverter chillers, integrated cooling towers, heat recovery chillers and free-cooling systems are installed. The measured data shows that the monthly maximum COP of the chillers is 24.2 and the system COP is 15.6 through the measured period.
On this paper (Part 2), we have made it appear by means of numerical analyses as below, that the thermal effect of PCM filled in structural body is useful for the absorption in the room temperature variability. The calculus of finite differences stands up to the process of numerical analysis in this case. Therefore we have substituted the void slab with some cylinder type models. For, this substitution brings us easy to calculate the thermal effect of PCM filled in structural body. The thermal effect of 3 models (PCM, non-void, void) had been investigated on this paper.
This paper is examined about the building thermal mass storage system based on floor-supply displacement ventilation system with granulated phase change material by computer simulation. Which purpose is to make clear the relationship between amount of PCM and the characteristics of peak cutting period. The condition of air supply temperature in morning, characteristics of charging and discharge to the PCM, energy consumption and load balancing is discussed.
We have tested thermal performance of latent heat storage tank using Sodium Acetate Trihydrate. In this heat storage tank, droplet shape heat transfer oil transmit heat to phase change material directly. Therefore this heat storage tank has widely heat exchange area. In this heat storage system, heat exchange was stable in the charging and discharging process. This latent heat storage tank supplied about 4.4GJ heat quantities (discharging from 67.8 to 53.0 centigrade) in discharging process. And, this tank supplied about 100kW heat flow rate in the charging and discharging process.
Using not the low temperature cold water but the middle temperature cold water as a heat source improves the efficiency of the chiller and refrigerator. We consider that the thermal storage technology of the middle temperature area is important to enable energy conservation and the running cost decrease. When phase change material is used as thermal energy storage materials in the middle temperature degree area, it is important to know the fundamental heat characteristic of the thermal storage tank using the phase change material.
This study aims to describe the feasibility of exhaust thermal energy utilization by using the PCM transportation. However, this system demands the space to put in the PCM containers at heat demand plants and heat supply plants. In this paper, we examined the method of exhaust heat utilization by PCM transportation to low/medium heat load density area. As a result, we confirmed that the more space there is, the more energy saving effect we can obtain. But, it is more rational to set a limit on the space for putting in the PCM containers.
It is important for the measure against global warming prevention to raise the energy efficiency in a residence, a building, and a community. In input energy, the thing of various kinds is used, and with output energy, they are collectively supplied by heat and electricity. Therefore, calculation of energy efficiency became difficult. In paper, it is proposed about the calculation method of energy efficiency.
This paper examined the evaluation method of the energy efficiency of the energy system using cogeneration energy. At first, it was shown that it is appropriate to divide an energy system into the electric power supply flow and the heat supply flow, and to evaluate energy efficiency. And the energy efficiency of the electric power supply flow and the heat supply flow is changed by the distribution method of the input energy to CGU. Next, it was shown that the energy-saving rate of the whole energy system can be evaluated by things using allocation B1.
In this paper, when the energy efficiency of systems using CHP energy was evaluated, the calculation method of energy efficiency that CO2 emissions were taken into consideration was studied. This is the method of distributing the primary energy inputted into CHP from a viewpoint of CO2 emissions to a power generation equivalent input and a waste heat equivalent input. In allocation, the primary energy conversion coefficient of electric power and waste heat can be set up by applying the power generation efficiency as which CO2 emission coefficient of input fuel was considered to the power generation efficiency of an alternative power generation system.
One of the Energies in a Community is the Waste Heat recovered from Incinerator. Waste Heat is conversion into Steam or Warm Water, and is used for Waste Power Generation. The 4th News reported the First Step of the Examination about an Evaluation Method for Energy Systems which using Waste Energy. The First Step Examined the Primary Energy Conversion Method of Waste Energy Supplied to "the Energy Supply Process for Consumers" from an Incinerator.
In order to conserve energy consumed by heat source equipments for air-conditioning, chillers, cooling/chilled water pumps and cooling tower fans are increasingly equipped with inverter to improve their energy efficiency in recent years. But the optimal operation for such heat source system is not established. Two methods are proposed to optimize cooling water temperature control, such as keeping temperature difference constant by controlling water flow rate, keeping the inlet water temperature constant by controlling the rotation of cooling tower fan, etc, but they are not confirmed to be optimal or not. In this research, the optimal operation of chiller system is studied as follows: 1)the development and verification of simulation model, 2)the comparison to ideal optimal operation, 3)discussion of CT selection in design period.
An operating efficiency of heat source system for clean room is relatively low because water temperature generated by chilling unit is lower than required from the type of heat load and control method of free-cooling is not optimized. To improve the operation efficiency, we suggested a structure of heat source system which changes supply water temperature depend on a heat load and control method which use free cooling efficiently. This study investigates a method for optimizing control of chilled and cooling water of the heat source system. As a result of practical simulation, energy consumption of heat source can be reduced higher than 35% by optimizing control.
The commercial sector much in heat demand, hospitals, nursing home and hotels are expected energy saving and CO2 reduction by introducing cogeneration system. In this paper, we calculated the best composition and operation schedule of energy utilities using optimization method. As a result, it has made out that the best energy system could reduce energy consumption, comparing to the common CGS system.
A thermosyphon is a heat exchanging device which transports a large amount of heat with a very small temperature difference between the ends of the pipe. Many thermosyphons are of the geostationary type, and they have been the subject of considerable research. On the other hand, there seem to be no studies about accelerating thermosyphons. In this study, we investigated the heat transfer characteristics of the thermosyphon with filmwise condensation in the condenser section, which was subjected to sinusoidal oscillation (maximum frequency was 40Hz) in a vertical direction. As a result, we found that the heat transfer of the thermosyphon was enhanced by oscillation.
There are no adequate floor air diffuser which can meet the critical thermal requirement to be installed underneath seats of amphitheater with steps. The purpose of this study is to find such geometry. The authors have investigated the air velocity distribution around a seat with several newly developed floor diffuser samples with different geometries and confirm the suitable one which can be used in amphitheater with step height higher than 16cm.
In this paper, basic characteristics of the hot-water-floor-heating panels ware investigated a condition of the thermal environment, a radiant performance, and the heat balance of the floor-heating system. Each panel has differences of the structure, thickness, thermal conductivity, piping pitch, and presence of aluminum foil. In results, the formula on amount of thermal radiation is derived. As clarifying the heat balance, a precept of the energy saving of the hot-water-floor-heating system has been shown.
The performance of an inverter controlled air source heat pump unit for hydronic floor heating is measured at various conditions of outdoor temperature and humidity, remote control settings of outlet water temperature and load factor at steady state. In a temperature condition, the heat pump unit provides the highest COP at a load factor of 0.4 to 0.6, whereas it also shows decrease of COP at lower load factors below 0.28 due to on/off control. The partial load variations can be expressed by a function of load factor, outdoor temperature and water temperature supplied to heat pump. The use of the function may allow convenient performance evaluation for such heat pump systems.
This paper describes characteristics of system performance in a hydronic floor heating system using an air source heat pump. The system reveals necessity of larger input energy during intermittent operation of the heat pump in the lower range of load factor. It also means decrease of rate of heat radiated from the floor surface relatively. Another analysis at steady state also indicates that thermal efficiencies of floor heating panels lead to the differences of temperature conditions or input energy in such systems and affect the system COP and then the electric power consumption.
In this study, we focus on creating a comfortable indoor climate for sleep in winter. Six healthy men participated in a sleep experiment using the house in the climate chamber. Case1 is conditioned by a floor heating (Room temperature is 17℃ except at the beginning and end of the experiment.). Case2 is conditioned by a floor heating (constant 20℃). Case3 is conditioned by a air-conditioning (constant 20℃). Case4 is constant 10℃ without heating system. The results suggest the conditions with a floor heating effect in sleep initiation and keeping in comparison with the other conditions.
This research is the room temperature control experiment with PTC floor heating system. It aims at construction of the control techniques of the PTC heater in the room that assumed a house. In this report, control technique corresponding to time-series-behavior of the heating load was constructed by the PI control for aimed for the removal of the offset of room temperature. As a result, offset was removed and it was shown clearly that PI control is effective as the control technique of PTC floor heating system.
This paper shows results of system performance evaluation for RC floor slab thermal storage for well-insulated housing using heat pumps. It proceeds in twin experimental houses held by Tokyo electric power company. It develops that the slab thermal storage has comfort by continuous cooling and heating effect, good energy-saving performance by avoiding decrease in efficiency of heat pump in low load operation and lower operating cost.
This Paper shows a formulation of power consumption of a floor heating system with heat pump. The quadratic expression composed of heat quantity by HP and air temperature obtains practical accuracy. Accuracy of the approximation increases similarly by adding supply or return water temperature at inlet/outlet of HP. It is comparable with measurement error.
This study is aimed at grasping a characteristic of thermal environment about the air-conditioning system used radiant cooling and heating with personal diffuser unit. We examined thermal environment with a measurement result of two rooms. It followed that the possibility that could choose thermal environment by choosing the wind velocity with a personal diffuser unit.
We measured the indoor environment that controlled mean radiant temperature by ceiling radiation Panel system in summer and middle season. As a result, this system was able to keep mean radiant temperature and air temperature constant in the room. The surface temperature of the room has the correlation between the air temperature. As a result, it is possible to control mean radiant temperature simply by using air temperature.
We developed 3 types of ceiling radiant cooling/heating panel and measured heat fluxes from them in an environmental test room. And we found that the panel of the improved meandering type had better thermal performance than other types. Then, we made a model test room using panels of the improved meandering type on its ceiling and measured thermal environment in the test room.