人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
1 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の4件中1~4を表示しています
論文
  • 戸田山 和久
    2003 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 1_5-1_10
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Philosophical naturalism is made up of two basic claims as follows. (1) Ontological claim (physicalism); Only 'physical entities and phenomena' and what supervene upon them really exist. (2) Epistemological claim; There is no 'first philosophy', that is, every method of investigation including philosophy itself must consist of the methods which are regarded as legitimate in empirical sciences. One consequence of the latter claim is called 'naturalization of philosophy of science' which has grown to be a powerful alternative to the traditional philosophy of science such as logical positivism or Bayesianism. The main concern of this paper resides in the question whether a philosophical naturalist could believe in these two claims at the same time. For, if naturalized philosophy of science found, in empirical data from the real history of science, the fact that the ultimate aim of scientific investigation is not to reach the literally true description of the world but to attain some other epistemic values (e.g. to control the nature or to make better predictions), it might undermine the realistic reading of the ontological claim of philosophical naturalism. This possibility is overlooked by virtually all the naturalists, but might pose a serious difficulty on their philosophic research program. In the last section of this paper, I tired to propose a way-out from this predicament for a philosophical naturalist like myself. The proposal consists of these two measures. (1) to adopt a Hackingean operationist criterion concerning what exists and what not, (2) to reinterpret scientific theories not as sets of theoreteical sentences but as semantic models.
  • 民政党総裁期
    川田 稔
    2003 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 1_11-1_22
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hamaguchi Osachi is one of the most important Japanese politicians in history. He helped bring about the Japan-China Tariff Treaty, introduced the gold standard, and concluded the London Naval Disarmament Treaty as Japanese prime minister in the early-Showa era. This paper studies the ideas behind his domestic policy, considering the political situation around him. Specifically, it deals with Hamaguchi's criticism of the domestic policy of the Tanaka administration, his stimulative measures, his theory of the constitution and social policy, and his correspondence about the political situation concerning the actions of the Seiyukai and the Minseito, etc. These are part of the study of Hamaguchi's political ideas and the political environment at that time.
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    池田 和夫
    2003 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 1_23-1_30
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated the characteristics of family structures in various situations represented by Japanese university students. Subjects were required to express the typical structures of their past and the present families, and the ideal structures of their families in the future using Family System Test (FAST). The classification revealed that cases classified into the 'balanced' were not so many in both the past and the present family representations although some changes were found in the hierarchy and cohesion with the growth of the children. In contrast, the majority of the ideal future representations were classified into the 'balanced'. This means that many Japanese students, just as the researchers in Western countries, assume that the ideal structures of their own families should be highly cohesive and must have some generational boundaries. In addition, other analyses showed the differences in the characteristics between the past, the present and the future family structures.
  • ナッハション イスラエル, カッツ オル
    2003 年 1 巻 1 号 p. 1_31-1_36
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    自国人と外国人の顔の認知における倒立効果の大きさに関する2つの仮説を検証する実験を行った。イスラエル人の被験者に対して、実験にはイスラエル人と日本人の正立像と倒立像の顔写真を使用した。実験計画は2(対提示・多肢選択)×3(0遅延時間・1秒遅延・3秒遅延)とした。反応時間と正答率の結果を分散分析した結果、白人の顔は日本人の顔よりも正確に認知され、正立顔は倒立顔よりも正確に認知されたことが明らかとなった。人種と顔の方向の間の相互作用は正答率の結果でのみ有意となった。正立像と倒立像ともに白人の顔が正確に認知されたが、有意な差となったのは白人の顔についてだけであった。これらの結果は、他の人種についてよりも自分と同じ人種の顔でより強い倒立効果が見られることを示唆する接触頻度仮説を部分的にではあるが支持している。
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