Philosophical naturalism is made up of two basic claims as follows. (1) Ontological claim (physicalism); Only 'physical entities and phenomena' and what supervene upon them really exist. (2) Epistemological claim; There is no 'first philosophy', that is, every method of investigation including philosophy itself must consist of the methods which are regarded as legitimate in empirical sciences. One consequence of the latter claim is called 'naturalization of philosophy of science' which has grown to be a powerful alternative to the traditional philosophy of science such as logical positivism or Bayesianism. The main concern of this paper resides in the question whether a philosophical naturalist could believe in these two claims at the same time. For, if naturalized philosophy of science found, in empirical data from the real history of science, the fact that the ultimate aim of scientific investigation is not to reach the literally true description of the world but to attain some other epistemic values (e.g. to control the nature or to make better predictions), it might undermine the realistic reading of the ontological claim of philosophical naturalism. This possibility is overlooked by virtually all the naturalists, but might pose a serious difficulty on their philosophic research program. In the last section of this paper, I tired to propose a way-out from this predicament for a philosophical naturalist like myself. The proposal consists of these two measures. (1) to adopt a Hackingean operationist criterion concerning what exists and what not, (2) to reinterpret scientific theories not as sets of theoreteical sentences but as semantic models.
Hamaguchi Osachi is one of the most important Japanese politicians in history. He helped bring about the Japan-China Tariff Treaty, introduced the gold standard, and concluded the London Naval Disarmament Treaty as Japanese prime minister in the early-Showa era. This paper studies the ideas behind his domestic policy, considering the political situation around him. Specifically, it deals with Hamaguchi's criticism of the domestic policy of the Tanaka administration, his stimulative measures, his theory of the constitution and social policy, and his correspondence about the political situation concerning the actions of the Seiyukai and the Minseito, etc. These are part of the study of Hamaguchi's political ideas and the political environment at that time.
This study investigated the characteristics of family structures in various situations represented by Japanese university students. Subjects were required to express the typical structures of their past and the present families, and the ideal structures of their families in the future using Family System Test (FAST). The classification revealed that cases classified into the 'balanced' were not so many in both the past and the present family representations although some changes were found in the hierarchy and cohesion with the growth of the children. In contrast, the majority of the ideal future representations were classified into the 'balanced'. This means that many Japanese students, just as the researchers in Western countries, assume that the ideal structures of their own families should be highly cohesive and must have some generational boundaries. In addition, other analyses showed the differences in the characteristics between the past, the present and the future family structures.