人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
11 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
原著
  • 波多野 文, 天ヶ瀬 正博
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 1-6
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In some cases, intermediate learners perform tasks worse than novices. For example, those who drink wine frequently but yet only have their limited expert (verbal) knowledge about it fail to recognize wine they drunk after they verbalized its taste using technical terms (Melcher & Schooler, 1996). It seems that the verbalization of insufficient perceptual knowledge does not always help intermediates to perform the recognition tasks. However, it is unclear whether the negative effect is caused by verbalization itself or by the cognitive load with the verbalization. The present experiment examined the question by minimalizing the verbalization, i.e., making participants do categorical classification in one technical term. Using music as a material, the present experiment examined what effects the categorical classification in a technical term would make on perceptual memory performance as a function of the acquisition of the expert skills. Twenty novices and twenty intermediates in classical music participated in the experiment. The intermediates were junior members of an amateur orchestra but had little knowledge of music history. Half of each group listened to piano pieces and classified each into one of three musicological categories: baroque, classical, and romantic. The rest listened to the pieces and performed another task as filler. Then, all of them took a recognition test of the pieces. As a result, when doing the classification in technical terms, the novices could recognize the pieces significantly more successfully than the intermediates. The categorical classification in technical terms tended to improve the perceptual memory performance by the novices but had not any effects on that by the intermediates. The findings suggest that verbalization itself affects the intermediates' performances.
  • 國橋 孝寛, 平 伸二, 大平 英樹
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 7-12
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recent studies indicated that salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is useful not only as a surrogate biological marker for sympathetic nervous activity, but also as a non-invasive index of psychological stress. Some psychophysiological studies have revealed significant increases of aAA during acute stress induces by experimental stressors such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which were comparable to other endocrinological indices such as salivary cortisol. However, association between change of sAA and performance of public speech within the TSST remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we recruited 10 participants (mean age = 20.60, SD = 0.80 yrs) to investigate the associations between transition of sAA and performance of speech. SAA and pulsatile heart rate were measured three times before, and three times after the social stress challenge. SAA was measured with a portable sAA biosensor (Salivary amylase monitor; NIPRO, Japan). The Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were administered to participants after the TSST protocol. An ANOVA revealed a significant increase of sAA after the task. However, no significant change of pulsatile heart rate was observed. Neither a correlation between sAA and VAS nor a correlation between POMS and VAS was observed. These results suggest that sAA induced by the TSST would be a reliable biomarker of acute stress. However, associations between sAA response and performance of public speech during the TSST still remain under question to be further explored.
  • 大庭 丈幸, 西松 能子, 大平 英樹
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 13-18
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the features in psychopathy is a deficit of empathy. Without empathy, psychopathy can not inhibit to harm others. However, previous studies revealed that offenders had more empathic traits than non-offenders. Empathy is defined as multidimensional components (e.g.; cognitive empathy and emotional empathy), but not as a unitary. Generally, psychopathy is consisted of two subcomponents: Primary Psychopathy (PP; features of callousness and lack of empathy) and Secondary Psychopathy (SP; features of impulsiveness and uncontrollability to own behaviours). Here, we hypothesized that psychopaths, particularly who are dominant in PP, have less empathic traits both in cognitive and emotional domains, on the other hand, SP is more linked with emotional empathic trait, but less linked with cognitive one. Furthermore, we investigated not only to relate psychopathic traits and multidimensional empathy, but also to validate a Japanese version of the Primary and Secondary Psychopathy Scales (PSPS), using both Machiavellianism (MACH) scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ). Results indicated that correlations between PP and MACH and between PP and BAQ subscales of physical aggression and verbal aggression were higher than correlations between SP and MACH and BAQ, while correlations between SP and BAQ subscales of anger and hostility were higher than correlations between PP and the BAQ subscales. About empathy, consistent with our hypothesis, PP was linked with less empathy both in cognitive and emotional domains, whereas SP was linked with more emotional empathy, but was linked with less cognitive empathy. This reveals that PSPS dissociated PP and SP well. Although there remain some problems, PSPS is a useful scale for measurement of psychopathic traits.
  • 中嶋 麻菜, 海老原 直邦, 西条 寿夫, 大平 英樹
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 19-25
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many people regularly listen to music for stress reduction and for healing. A number of studies have investigated the effects of music on psychological and physiological states. However, there have been few studies to examine the effects of music on recovery from stress states. Therefore, the present study investigated how psychophysiological stress states can be recovered through listening to music. Sixteen participants (3 men and 13 women) were assigned both to a music-condition and to a no music-condition, and performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The psychological parameters, stress hormones (salivary cortisol and salivary chromogranin A) and autonomic indices (heart rate and heart rate variability; HRV) were measured. All parameters, except autonomic indices, significantly increased after the TSST. Psychological parameters and salivary cortisol showed more significant reduction in participants listening to music than in participants who did not listen to music. When participants listened to music, the heart rate increased and the high frequency of HRV decreased. There was no change in salivary chromogranin A and low frequency/high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) of HRV. These results suggest that listening to music led to sympathetic nervous activation rather than parasympathetic nervous activation. Within physiological parameters, salivary cortisol corresponded to psychological stress state most. It could be interpreted that uplifting music made sympathetic nervous activation and led to exultation or excitement rather than to relaxation. Therefore, the autonomic indices would also be corresponding to psychological stress states.
  • 鈴木 千賀
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 27-33
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    水質総量規制とは閉鎖性水域の水質環境基準を確保するために、環境に排出される汚濁物質の総量を一定量以下に削減する環境省告示の法制度のことである。2002年度適用の第5次水質総量規制からは全リン(T-P)の削減も開始されている。富栄養な東京湾では水質総量規制による水質の改善と赤潮発生との間に関係性は見られないと言う論点があるが、規制によるT-Pの流入負荷と赤潮の動態(対象とする赤潮判定基準の変動)においては両者に何らかの関係性が見出せる可能性がある。本研究では重回帰分析の応用手法として「細胞数赤潮指標モデル」を作成し、モデルの説明率の推移から検証を試みた。
  • 高橋 雅延, 川口 敦生, 北神 慎司
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 35-41
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    事故や犯罪事件における目撃記憶の研究は多数行われているものの、車に関する目撃記憶の検討はきわめて少ない。本研究では、車そのものの記憶と遭遇場所の記憶に関する性差を検討した。大学生の参加者(女性64名と男性64名)には2つの場所のどちらか1つの場所にある車の写真を視覚的に呈示した。その際、統制群は車だけを記憶するように教示したのに対して、実験群は車と場所の両方を記憶するように教示した。すべての写真の提示後、(背景の場所のない)最初の呈示の際の車体(ターゲット)と、異なる車体(ディストラクタ)の2肢強制選択再認テストを行った。引き続き、最初の呈示の際の背景の場所と車体(ターゲット)と、背景の場所だけが異なる車体(ディストラクタ)の2肢強制選択再認テストを行った。実験の結果、車体そのものの記憶は遭遇場所の記憶より優れていることが明らかとなった(ただし、車体そのものの記憶は女性より男性の方が優れていた)。また、遭遇場所も記憶するという意図を持つことによって、性別に関わりなく、車の遭遇場所の記憶も向上することが明らかとなった。これらの結果に関して、ソースモニタリングの枠組みから解釈を行うと同時に、えん罪の原因の一つである無意識的転移と呼ばれる問題点との関連を述べることで、本研究の実践的な示唆について述べた。
  • 八田 武志, 伊藤 恵美, 長谷川 幸治
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 43-50
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    高齢期に伴う認知機能の低下を鈍化させるための訓練方法を開発する目的で、65歳以上の健常者40名を対象に介入訓練実験を実施した。認知訓練群は1週間に1回の割合で手紙を書く課題を行った。手紙は実験者側が「子どもの頃どんな遊びをしましたか」などの回想的質問に単文を書くように求める課題と、未知の4名の人物写真に対して「職業、年齢、性格」を推論すること求める課題から構成されていた。運動訓練群には1日15分程度のバルーンを用いる体操、散歩などを課すものであった。8週間の介入訓練の前後で測定した認知(注意、記憶、言語)検査と重心動揺検査結果を比較したところ、認知訓練群では認知検査及び重心動揺検査で成績の上昇が認められたが、運動訓練群では介入訓練での変化は認められなかった。これらの結果に基づいて、加齢に伴う認知機能低下に対する手紙課題の有効性を検討した。
  • 堀田 千絵, 伊藤 恵美, 永原 直子, 岩原 昭彦, 八田 武志
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 51-58
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は、認知機能が自己の生活の近未来及び遠未来のイマジネーションの楽観性に影響を与えるかどうか、40歳から87歳を対象に検討した。ポジティヴィティ効果と社会感情選択理論に基づく統合仮説によれば、認知機能の高者は低者と比べ、ポジティブに未来をイメージすることにつながることが予測された。さらに、認知機能の高い高齢者は近未来をポジティブに変容させる一方で、若齢者は遠未来をポジティブにイメージすることが予測された。本研究は、296名に対し未来のイメージに関する質問紙とMMSE、LMT、ストループ課題を用いた認知課題を課した。結果として、MMSEとLMTにおいて高い成績を示した者は、ポジティブな未来をイメージすることが分かった。さらに、60歳以下において高いMMSEとストループ成績、LMT得点を示した者は、10年後といった遠未来をポジティブにイメージする一方で、60歳以上において高いMMSE、ストループ成績、LMT得点を示した者は、低い得点を示した者と比べて、1年、3年といった近未来をポジティブにイメージすることが分かった。これらの結果から、ポジティヴィティ効果と社会感情選択理論との統合仮説は、認知機能の低下が相対的に高い60歳以下の男性を除き、すべての参加者において支持された。
  • 渡辺 匠, 岡田 真波, 酒井 真帆, 池谷 光司, 唐沢 かおり
    2013 年 11 巻 1 号 p. 59-65
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/06/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    There were two primary purpose of this study. One major purpose was to test the effects of disbelief in free will on self-control and the other purpose was to examine whether free will beliefs affect causal attribution of success and failure. Although a great deal of effort has been made on the definition or existence of free will, only few attempts have so far been made at how people's belief in free will influences subsequent judgment and behavior. As an example of such attempts, Rigoni, Wilquin, Brass, and Burle (2013) found that induced disbelief in free will weakens people's motivation of self-control, which suggests dismissing free will leads people to rely on more automatic and impulsive actions. On the basis of this earlier research, the authors intended to confirm the phenomenon that disbelief in free will reduces motivation of self-control. Furthermore, we investigated the processes of causal attribution by belief in free will since they are thought to be associated with both free will beliefs and self-control. Fifty-two undergraduates participated in the study and they were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions (free will, determinism, or control). After free will manipulation, participants completed the Stroop task, whose performance reflects motivation to self-control. Finally, participants received false feedback of success or failure in the Stroop task and they answered attributional questionnaire. The results did not confirm our hypothesis regarding self-control: Participants who were induced to disbelieve in free will performed equally well in the Stroop task as other conditions. However, causal attribution was linked with manipulation of disbelief in free will: Participants who were induced to disbelieve in free will showed less self-effacing bias in task attribution. The findings are suggestive that free will beliefs alter causal attribution processes, which in turn affect a person's social judgment and behavior.
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