It has long been pointed out that children, nowadays, like exercise itself but dislike physical education class in school. It also has been noticed the increase of diversity of children between who exercise actively by themselves and who hate exercise. A final goal of physical education in primary school teachers is to foster children痴 attitude of lifelong familiarity towards physical exercise. To this goal, an important role of the primary school teacher to induce active group learning on physical education class such as group works, set of individual aspiration level, active supports by teacher and the importance nature of leadership were discussed. In this study, several ways to realize the goal from the standpoints of view of physical education school teachers were discussed.
The Family System Test (FAST) is a technique for assessing the family cognition of subjects by means of dolls which are used to imitate real family members. In previous studies in Japan, Nakami and Katsurada (2010) created a three-generation family痴 evaluation system for the first time. They succeeded in making new evaluation criteria; however, since the samples they tested were limited to university students only, it needs to be applied to more subjects with different generations to make their system more reliable. In this study, their system was examined to see if family cognition of younger generations can be applied to it. As a result, as far as the evaluation of family cohesion was concerned, it was appropriate to evaluate a three-generation family as one system, but as for evaluation of family hierarchy, the results obtained were different from Nakami and Katsurada. In the case of children, they evaluate a grandfather doll higher than a mother doll, which makes it clear that for the children, grandfather has more influence on them than mother has. Thus, the results in this study suggest that Nakami and Katsurada criterion requires re-examination for a new evaluation of family hierarchy.
People may refuse trade-offs between some things that they value and other things. However, the possibility that some values are protected against being trade-offs with other values can make an appropriate judgment regarding public works impossible. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of providing opportunities for reflection regarding protected values (PVs) on the changes of the PVs. For this purpose, we conducted an experiment targeting university students (n = 98), where subjects were asked to think of counterexamples in which protected values (PVs) around public works (dam construction project) conflict with other values. We investigated the effect of such an experimental manipulation upon respondents' expression of PVs. The results showed that reflective thinking on PVs can lead people to make a trade-off with other values and then PVs can be changed. Especially it was found that those who could reflect over other values than PVs through the experimental manipulation tend to change their expression of the PVs. Finally, implications of the present results for consensus building around public works were discussed.
In the present research, we examined the effects of belief in free will on interpersonal aggression. Baumeister et al. (2009) demonstrated disbelief in free will promoted aggression toward an innocent target. However, our aggressive behavior is not limited to such non-retributive aggression. For instance, people often attack a person who has shown aggression against them in order to defend themselves or take sanctions. The strength of such aggressive behavior is proportional to perceived responsibility of the transgressor (Ohbuchi, 1987). It has been shown that belief in free will has strong relation to the attribution of responsibility and punishment. Thus, we predicted belief in free will would promote aggression against a transgressor. Forty-five undergraduates participated in the study and they were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions (free will, determinism, or control). After free will manipulation, participants conducted the competitive reaction time game against a fictitious participant. In the task, participants and a hypothetical opponent repeatedly delivered the blast of white noise to each other. The intensity of the blast of white noise specified by participants was the measure of aggression. The results indicated believing in free will increased aggression among participants high in trait aggression. The finding raise the possibility that belief in free will of self and that of others differently influence aggressive behavior.
Effects of resource disparity among groups, on collective action and group identity in subordinate groups were investigated. The Social Identity Theory leads to the assumption that members of subordinate groups with a larger resource disparity acts more collectively, and has a higher degree of positive identity than those with a smaller resource disparity. Data were collected from participants (N = 208) that took part in one of six simulation games (approximately 35 members per game). The results indicated that members with a larger resource disparity acted more collectively and had a higher degree of positive identity than those with a smaller resource disparity.
The aim of this study was to construct a general education curriculum related to arithmetic activities according to the children's stage of early childhood development for students with special needs (intellectual disabilities, sickly, physically-disabled, developmental disabilities such as Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficits/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Learning Disability, and multiple disorders). To achieve the above aim, the case of education curriculum related to arithmetic activities in a special-needs school was reported and the mathematical activities embedded in everyday activities practiced in nursery school were referred to. Finally, general education curriculum related to arithmetic activities on the basis of early childhood development was constructed. Then, effective teaching methods based upon the education curriculum constructed in this study were discussed.
The aim of this study was to construct a general education curriculum of career guidance for students with special needs (intellectual disabilities, sickly, physically-disabled, severe motor and developmental disorders such as Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficits/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Learning Disability, and multiple disorders). To achieve the above aim, the cases of career guidance in three special-needs schools were reported and a mutual education curriculum based on the case reports was constructed. Finally, future issues related to the relation between career guidance and education curriculum in special-needs school were discussed and the formation of partnership among schools, welfare institutions and the companies stimulated the career development of students.
Supports for developmental disabilities in Japan are not necessarily evidence-based approaches and have a feeble scientific background. In this article, firstly, we reviewed recent evidences concerning brain plasticity to examine the validity to apply cognitive rehabilitation programs for traumatic brain injury people to developmental disabilities who need cognitive habilitation programs. Secondly, concrete cognitive rehabilitation programs that have been offered by Nagoya Rehabilitation Center were introduced and finally, we mentioned IAPT (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies) in UK to learn how to prepare cognitive habilitation programs for developmental disabilities in Japan.
The aim of this study was to examine the two points in DSM-5 (Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5-th. ed.) diagnostic standard. The first point is that the severity level for intellectual disability is determined by adaptive functioning rather than IQ scores. The second point is that the autistic disorder is determined by deficits in two core domains (a: social communication and social interaction, b: restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior), but they cannot be used for determining whether to make diagnosis function at predetermined items.
Absolute pitch (AP) is assumed to involve both pitch memory and pitch labeling for musical pitches. While people with AP possess both, non-AP individuals possess only pitch memory. AP possessors are superior to non-AP possessors in pitch labeling accuracy for semitones, but whether this holds true in pitch memory precision that cannot be labeled by a musical pitch name is unclear. In this study, pitch memory for tones subdivided by less than one semitone was compared among accurate AP possessors, inaccurate AP possessors, and non-AP possessors. In experiment 1, participants were given a pitch labeling task, and both accurate and inaccurate AP possessors were superior to non-AP possessors in the precision of pitch memory. However, in experiment 2, in which pitch labeling was not required, inaccurate AP possessors were not superior to non-AP possessors. In addition, the perceptual shift toward low pitch was also observed below the age of twenty years on average.
The opportunity of continuing education for people with intellectual disabilities, graduated from secondary schools is extremely limited more than those with other disabilities. In this article, the author reviewed the history and current situations of continuing education for people with intellectual disabilities in Japan, and higher lifelong educational situations in overseas countries. In USA, recently, the opportunity of enrollment to higher education institutions has increased remarkably. While, in Japan, the nondegree graduate courses at secondary schools have gradually increased but it is still not enough. It is necessary to be pervasive them throughout the country and establish cooperation with higher education institutions and to make more appropriate educational programs. In addition, the author introduced issues about support system for students with developmental disabilities.
Human societies are organized around cooperative and altruistic interactions. Natural selection, however, favors selfish and strong individuals who maximize their own resources at the expense of others. Although many previous studies with average payoffs have developed mechanisms for resolving the cooperation dilemma, they have a severe problem. Estimating the average values requires sufficient knowledge of the payoffs for all players in all public goods games (PGGs), which is difficult to achieve in practice. People make estimates every day based on insufficient knowledge. The transition probabilities ought to be therefore calculated based on known payoffs rather than on the average. Through this individual learning, we show that pool-punishers can overcome free-riders to establish stable cooperation within a society without help from non-participants or players using other strategies, even with a small multiplier (r) of public goods. This scenario requires the punishment that the free-riders receive to be greater than the cost to the pool-punishers. We also demonstrate that smaller population sizes and higher participation rates engender greater fixation probabilities for cooperation.