The aim of this study was to examine whether vocational fitness to care-giving work have influence on stress coping behavior and purpose of life in care-giving workers with regular and irregular employment. Two hundred thirty four care-giving workers were asked to check (1): Vocational Readiness Test, related to measurement of vocational preference to care-giving works, (2) Stress Coping Scale and (3) Ikigai-9. We obtained the three main results. First was that the degree of purpose of current life in low vocational preference group with regular employee was lower than that with irregular employee. Second was that overall stress coping behavior score in the care-giving works with regular employee was lower than those with irregular employee. Third was that low vocational preference group with irregular employee was high in other vocational preference score, compared to regular employee. Based on these results, we proposed the On-the-Job Training in the view of the vocational fitness to care-giving works.
This paper describes the practice of psycho-educational services in school education, presenting representative examples of arguments related to the research background of dynamic assessment. Communities of practice have been considered to exist based on Vygotsky's theory and based on Feuerstein's theory (1979) in terms of the ways of thinking about dynamic assessment. Those theories and communities are linked to various arguments. For that reason, the first author reports, as a school psychologist, psycho-educational services for high schools using dynamic assessment (Learning Propensity Assessment Device: LPAD), its intervention materials (Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment: FIE), and their evaluation based on Feuerstein's theoretical position. Changes were recognized in aspects of everyday school life and psycho-sociology in addition to aspects of learning, from the records of practices and students' impressions. Furthermore, when having given feedback for students' learning processes, teachers described scenes in which students were learning subjects and their relevant episodes. This description suggests that feedback can broaden teachers' perspectives for assessment. The particular difficulties of the program were: 1) its requirements for qualification using materials developed by Feuerstein and 2) the number of hours in the school curriculum do not accommodate setting of the intervention period in an intensive manner. Those problems might be resolved by using the basic principles and methods broadly, thereby developing the program as a model of psycho-educational services.
Effects of the emotional valence of words on directed forgetting were investigated using the list method. In the Experiment 1, Participants studied Lists 1 and 2, both consisting of emotionally positive, negative, or neutral words. In Session 1, participants received the "Forget Instruction," telling them to forget List 1 and remember List 2 (forget-condition). Then, they were asked to recall all the words in the two lists, including those that they were instructed to forget. In Session 2, participants received the "Remember Instruction" telling them to remember both Lists 1 and 2 (remember-condition). Then, they were told to recall all the list words. The order of the session was counterbalanced across participants. Results provided evidence for the directed forgetting effect: participants in the forget-condition recalled fewer List 1 words and more List 2 words compared to the remember-condition. However, this effect was not observed when the study-list was negative List 1 and positive List 2, negative List 1 and neutral List 2. Similar results were obtained in Experiment 2, using the same procedure, with the exception that neutral words were eliminated. These findings suggest that the emotional valence of the list modulated the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect.
In relation to BP-related effects on cognitive changes in elderly people, Bucur and Madden (2010) proposed that age-related effects associate more closely with complex abilities such as executive function than with elementary perceptual speed. In this study, the validity of their proposal was examined using Yakumo study longitudinal data. From the database, linear regression coefficients (slope) in D-CAT (digit cancelation test) results from 65 to 75 years old were calculated. In this study, data of participants who had been assessed D-CAT at least 4 times for 11 years period were analyzed. Participants were assigned into two groups (sustain group whose mean regression coefficient was more than -0.05 in the D-CAT1 condition, and decline group whose mean regression coefficient was less than -0.05 in the D-CAT1 condition). Comparisons of mean regression coefficients in the D-CAT1 and the D-CAT3 conditions showed that the declining slope in D-CAT3 was significantly more prominent than that of in D-CAT1 in the sustain group. Number of participants who showed more prominent decline slope in D-CAT3 than in D-CAT1 was significantly large. The results for the decline group showed no clear difference in regression coefficients between the D-CAT1 and the D-CAT3. These results support the proposal by Bucur and Madden (2010) that cognitive aging affects more frontal lobe-dependent aspects of measures, and then the decline becomes more pronounced in the D-CAT3 than in the D-CAT1.
In elections, the nation is required to judge candidates or parties which have the ability to lead the country or regions toward a good direction. However, in some elections, it seems that the factors extraneous to the ability, such as name value or popularity, have enormous influence to the support attitude or voting behaviour. This study performed questionnaire survey in Sakai city, Osaka prefecture in order to examine the effect of the media which serves information regarding elections to people. As a result, positive correlations has been shown between the contact tendency of media and TV programs which emphasise atmosphere or image and the positive attitude towards candidates or parties. The contact tendency is stronger in Japan Restoration Party, Osaka Restoration Association, and other related candidates.
Legitimacy is defined as perceived approvability of others' or one's own rights to decide public policies on the basis of some reasons or values. The present study assumed integrated administrations of a large region or local region as authority holding rights to decide the propriety of troublesome facility, and examined approval processes for legitimacy of these two authorities among people in located or outside area. Effects of troublesome facility on personal interests of people in located area are direct and visible, whereas those on interests of people in outside area are indirect and invisible. In case that information about interests of people in located or outside area are insufficient, people in outside area will consider propriety of troublesome facility as a public decision which is irrelevant to themselves, and to approve the legitimacy of people in located area. Therefore, they are hypothesized to evaluate the legitimacy of administrations of a local region more highly. On the other hand, they will estimate the legitimacy of administrations of a large region highly when the information about interests of people in located or outside area are sufficient, because they aid to acquire their own interests. The results of an experiment employing a scenario method supported the hypothesis. These results suggest that people in outside area holding sufficient information evoke elaborative processing in consideration of various cues concurrently.
To develop a driving environment for people with spinal cord injury that reduces their physical burden while they drive a car, a preliminary study was conducted to examine the acceleration of the head while driving, using a 3D motion analysis system. The subjects were five males with spinal cord injury. The mean age was 39.0 years old, and the level of spinal cord injury was C5 or C6. They usually used manual wheelchairs to move around. In the experiment, the vehicles owned by the individual subjects and the commercial driving assistance devices were used. The driving course included five left- and right-curve segments each. The subjects were asked to drive at 10, 20, 30, and 40 km/h in random order. A marker was attached to the left ear of the subjects, and their heads while driving were recorded using two video cameras. A 3D motion analysis system was used, and the position, speed, and acceleration of the marker attached to the head were calculated. There were no significant differences in the acceleration of the head when the subjects drove on either left- or right-curved segments at 10 to 30 km/h. When the subjects drove at 40 km/h, the accelerations in the left-right and front-back directions on the left-curved segments were 2.6 and 2.5 m/s2, respectively. The accelerations in the left-right and front-back directions in the right-curved segments were 3.1 and 3.2 m/s2, respectively; there were significant differences in the acceleration in the front-back direction (p < 0.05). There were also significant differences in the acceleration of the head in the front-back direction immediately after the subjects entered left and right curves (p < 0.05). When the car was driven at 10 to 30 km/h, there was no significant difference in the acceleration of the head between the left- and right-curved segments. However, when the subjects drove at 40 km/h, the acceleration of the head on the left-curved segments was higher than that on the right-curved segments, in the front-back direction in particular. This suggests that, when vehicles curve to the right at 40 km/h, the acceleration is faster and the net force applied to the head is greater than when they curve to the left. Our previous study (2010) suggested that, when vehicles curve to the left at a fast speed, the change in the position of the head is greater than when they curve to the right. The results of our previous and present studies suggest that, to assess the burden placed on the body while driving, it is necessary to not only examine changes in the position of the head, but also determine the acceleration of the head as an assessment index.
The aim of this study was to summarize teaching principles for the students with intellectual disabilities (ID) in terms of constructing the effective learning environments. Based on findings of learning science, we looked from the viewpoint of four areas (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000); (1) learner-centered, (2) knowledge-centered, (3) assessment-centered, and (4) community-centered environments. First, learner-centered environments pay attention to the knowledge, skills, ability, attitudes, and beliefs that the students with ID bring to the educational setting. Second, knowledge-centered environments take the need to help the students with ID learn the organized knowledge. Third, assessment-centered environments provide frequent opportunities for feedback focused on understanding to encourage meaningful learning. Especially, in the formative assessment, teachers need to provide the students with ID with opportunities to revise and improve the quality of their thinking and understanding. Finally, community-centered environments foster that all students are encouraged to be active, constructive participants, which was most active in education for the students with ID. The four effective learning environments have interdependent utility. The goal is to gain meta-cognitive abilities to self-awareness, self-assess and rethink for better understanding for the students with ID.
This paper examined the characteristics and patterns of uncommon names in present-day Japan. Uncommon names have increasingly attracted a remarkable amount of attention, both in the academic field and in society at large. In order to capture the underlying nature of the phenomenon of giving uncommon names to babies, it is important as a first step to describe the characteristics of uncommon names and to systematically categorize them within a structured framework. However, past research mostly focused on names that were too unique and unclear about how they were to be read (kirakira names), which reflected partial and potentially misleadingly extreme aspects of the phenomenon. Moreover, previous research has used unique names that were possibly invented and hypothetical, which is not productive to understanding the actual phenomenon of giving uncommon names and might produce/reproduce "anecdotal names" or "urban legend names." Therefore, in this article, names that were uncommon (not too unique) and real (not hypothetical) were examined. It is suggested that there are two ways of giving uncommon names: (1) giving an uncommon reading/pronunciation to Chinese characters and (2) giving uncommon Chinese characters. There are three typical ways of providing uncommon readings: (1-1) abbreviating the common reading of Chinese characters, (1-2) reading Chinese characters with the pronunciation of a foreign word that corresponds to its semantic meaning and (1-3) giving readings based on the semantic meaning of Chinese characters. In contrast, there are two typical ways of giving uncommon Chinese characters: (2-1) giving Chinese characters that are not encountered frequently in daily life and (2-2) including silent Chinese characters that add to the semantic meaning without contributing to the pronunciation. The characteristics of uncommon names and future directions in research investigating uncommon names in Japan were discussed.