人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
15 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
原著
  • 人々は日常的に、複数の目標を同時に追求している。他方、目標達成に必要な制御資源は有限であることから、それぞれの目標に対して十分な労力を常に投入できるとは限らない。先行研究では、2つの目標を連続して遂行するとき、後続の目標の達成が難しいほど、その目標に向けて制御資源が節約されることが示されてきた。他方、動機づけ強度理論に基づくと、後続の目標の達成が極めて困難であり、達成が不可能と認知されると、その目標に対して制御資源は節約されなくなると予測される。この予測を検証するため、本研究では38名の大学生を対象とした実験室実験をおこなった。実験でははじめに、2つの異なる認知課題(ストループ課題・数字暗記課題)を順番におこなうと説明した。その際、後続の課題(数字暗記課題)の内容に関する教示を変えることでその課題の達成可能性の高低を操作し、先行の課題(ストループ課題)の遂行が変化するかを検証した。結果、数字暗記課題の達成可能性が低い(不可能)条件の参加者は、統制条件の参加者と比べて、ストループ課題の遂行が有意に高いことが示された。すなわち、後続の目標の達成が不可能だと認知されると、先行の目標の遂行において制御資源は節約されないという、動機づけ強度理論の予測に整合する結果が得られた。考察では、目標競合時の自己制御に対する介入方略の可能性や本研究における限界について議論した。
    櫻井 良祐, 渡辺 匠, 唐沢 かおり
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 87-92
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 横断的データと縦断的データによる検討
    八田 武志, 岩原 昭彦, 加藤 公子, 堀田 千絵, 八田 武俊, 八田 純子, 藤原 和美, 伊藤 恵美, 浜島 信之
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 93-100
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    加齢に伴う高血圧と認知機能の低下との関連に関する研究において、血圧の影響は前頭葉機能の遂行系機能の方が情報速度処理系機能よりも大きいとする、Bucur and Madden (2010)の仮説を2種の研究法で検討した。研究1では八雲研究横断的データを用いて、高血圧群と正常群について認知機能検査(NU-CAB)のうち遂行機能を反映するとみなせる検査項目と情報処理速度を反映するとみなせる項目について比較した。その結果は概ね彼らの仮説を支持するものとなった。研究2では八雲研究縦断的データ(6年間)を使用し、多変量解析を用いて、遂行機能検査項目と情報処理速度検査項目に血圧変数と年齢変数が寄与する効果を検討した。その結果は、血圧変数と検査項目変数との間に交互作用を認めず、仮説は支持されるものではなかった。これらの結果は、Bucur and Madden(2010)の仮説は、方法論の影響を受けない堅牢な妥当性を有するとは言えないことを示唆している。
  • Yakumo Study資料の個人差からの考察
    八田 武志, 加藤 公子, 岩原 昭彦, 八田 武俊, 藤原 和美, 堀田 千絵, 伊藤 恵美, 八田 純子, 永原 直子, 長谷川 幸治
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 101-108
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Relations between physical activity and frontal cortex function in healthy community dwellers over 65 years old were examined using the Yakumo Study database. In Study 1, based on the questionnaire response on physical activity habit in everyday life, the proportion of the population who is making habits of physical activity was investigated. As a result, 60 % of respondents answered that they do not exercise as a whole, even half of respondents who continued participating for more than 3 years stopped exercising in less than 7 years and 7 % continued for 11 years. It has become clear that it is extremely difficult to continue physical activity in everyday life even if they realize that a physical activity is effective for maintaining and improving cognitive function. In Study 2, the relationship between the linear regression coefficients for attention-related cognitive tests after 65-year-old and the presence or absence of continued physical activity habits was examined. As a result, it was revealed that the group continuing for more than 6 years was superior to the group without habit for the decrease in attention performance. Although the physical activity in everyday life is considered effective in preventing frontal lobe function deterioration due to aging, it is not easy to engage and continue it for ordinary community dwellers. A constant and effective external reinforce seems necessary to make physical daily activity as a habit.
  • 戦争犯罪人報道に着目して
    賀茂 道子
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 109-120
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Newspapers were influenced indirectly by the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) in GHQ, who was responsible for media policy during the occupation period in Japan. This method was not forced like censorship, but rather was an educational approach, where newspaper editors were assembled. Despite this approach being unforced and indirect, newspapers in Japan gradually changed their articles to match the ideals promoted by the CIE. Why did the CIE adopt such an approach, and why was the control of the press so effective despite the chosen methods of influence being indirect and uncoercive? To answer these questions, this paper examined press conferences and focused analysis on reports about trials of war criminals, as a perception gap between the GHQ and Japanese media existed from the beginning of the occupation on the subject of war criminals. The solution was a press conference. At this conference, it was requested that newspaper editors ask vigorous questions to the CIE. Meanwhile, the CIE did not issue direct instructions, but instead focused on explaining the occupation policy and promoting their ideal image of what a newspaper should strive for. As a result, Japanese newspapers took on the advice of the CIE, and, using American newspapers as a model, began voluntarily including human interest stories into their reporting. Likewise, the CIE was able to gain a clearer understanding of the perception held by Japanese newspaper editors and then could use this knowledge in future occupation policy. This interactive nature was the significance of this press conference.
  • 「劇場的法律観」から「劇場的法システム」へ
    高橋 孝治
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 121-126
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the study techniques of the Sociology of law is a technique for finding a concept of a new law. In this study, it is pointed out that Chinese "law" is different from "law" of Western countries. The author referred to "The essay of theatrical law thought in China whose theme is on Zhang Xiao-Li" case, and also "Unseen rule in Chinese society" written by Takanori Kato. However, this past report has a point lacking. This paper is the addendum to make up for that lack. The conclusion of this paper is China has "Closed law" and must not trust Chinese "law" and there is a function to deceive the people. This paper assumes it as a whole, the Chinese "law" is modeled as "The phenomenon in the theaters".
  • 野寺 綾, 中村 信次
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 127-133
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, we examined the effects social networking service (SNS) applied in academic education on the facilitation of students' positive attitude toward their university. In the targeted class, both the students and teachers were encouraged to use SNS to exchange information. The students' attitudes toward their university were measured by using implicit and explicit methods at the beginning and at the end of the academic period. The results revealed that participants exhibiting low SNS usage tended to have poorer attitudes as evident from both implicit and explicit measures. This suggested that they formed a negative attitude by the end of the session. On the other hand, the worsening of the pro-university attitude was not observed in participants exhibiting high SNS use. The psychological process underlying the positive effects of active SNS usage was discussed.
  • 原子力発電施設の事故直後と平常時の比較
    尾花 恭介, 藤井 聡, 前田 洋枝
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 135-142
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this research was to understand and determine factors that affect information-seeking behavior of a public project, especially a nuclear power facility. Participants answered a questionnaire. We compared two periods: considering 6 months following the Great East Japan Earthquake as "crisis time" and 6 months preceding our studies (January to July 2015 in Study 1 and May to November 2015 in Study 2) as "ordinary times." The results showed that people sought information to different extents depending on their situations. Participants reported that they sought more external information during the crisis time than in ordinary times in both the studies. Additionally, the results showed that cognition of the possibility of harm did not affect information-seeking behavior. On the other hand, participants who showed high cognition of the possibility of change in social norms engaged more in information-seeking behavior. Based on the results, we have discussed means to improve social acceptance of public projects.
  • 陳 凱帆, 黒田 達朗
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 143-155
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では、往復に支障のない範囲にある二つの国を想定し、それぞれの市民が自国内あるいは国境を越えて他国を自由に観光目的の旅行が可能な状況を分析する。両国政府は、それぞれの国内で適切な税を課し、その税収を用いて、治安、公共施設、自然地帯、人工景観建設などの観光インフラ整備を行うことにより、自国の社会厚生を最大化するよう行動する。各国には観光産業があり、両国政府の提供する観光インフラを前提に、それぞれの観光サービスの料金を選択することにより、顧客の獲得に基づく利潤最大化を目的に競争する。上記のように、両国の市民はそれらを前提条件として、自らの効用を最大化するように国内および他国への観光回数を選択する。本研究では、この状況を3段階の連続ゲームとして分析することにより、政策的な示唆を得ることを目的とする。ただし、一般的な理論解の比較が困難なことから、最終的には消費者の選好を表す特定のパラメータを複数仮定してシミュレーション分析を行うことにより、代表的なケースの比較静学的な特徴を明らかにする。
  • 加藤 淳
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 157-162
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    What is the way to foster safety culture? This paper considers safety culture and leadership to foster safety culture of healthcare organizations, and organizational culture and a concept of leadership was adopted. Safety culture is included in organizational culture, however, safety culture emphasizes safety. Leadership is the main factor which makes organizational function of organizational culture. However, there are several types for leadership. Therefore, servant leader as nurse痴 leadership was adopted. Servant leadership is a leader and a leader who serves. This paper points out a nurse as servant leader of leadership of the healthcare organizations. Also, it is necessary to take notice of the nurse痴 validity as the servant leader.
  • Helpman型モデルにおけるTiebout仮説の検証
    石塚 治久, 黒田 達朗
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 163-172
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper investigates Tiebout's conjecture on the role of heterogeneity in tastes for local public goods in the context of income-tax competition and Helpman-type model of New Economic Geography (NEG, hereafter). We identify two symmetric regions that compete for capital, which is mobile instantaneously between regions and is combined with an immobile factor, land, to produce the housing service. Following the literature of tax competition, it is assumed that each local government spends the tax revenue for providing local public goods in its region. Workers are producing differentiated private goods that facilitate the agglomeration economy as in NEG literature. They choose to migrate to the preferable region in the long run. We assume that uniform distribution is carried out according to the degree of attachment to public goods. We show that agglomeration economies tend to appear when transportation costs are high, which is similar to the result of Helpman-type NEG model, while it is also shown that heterogeneity of preferences for public goods works as either centripetal or centrifugal force, depending on the parameters in simulations. That is, the heterogeneity of households might not work as the dispersion force such as immobile workers in Krugman-type NEG model. This result implies that many patterns might exist in population arrangement that Tiebout's conjecture asserts under the settings of income-tax competition and the agglomeration forces in private sectors.
  • 看護師長が支援方法を具体化していくプロセス
    鈴江 智恵
    2017 年 15 巻 2 号 p. 173-180
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the process of the chief of of nurses' cognition of "support for in-house career development" of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, whose proportion in the workplace is expected to increase in the future. Semi-structured interviews of 16 chief of nurses were conducted, and the responses were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The results revealed that the chief of nurses' cognition process involved 3 steps. In the step of "grasping phenomena", they cognized the and . In the step of "focusing on problems", they cognized the and . Finally, in the step of "realizing support methods", they cognized the . Previous nursing management studies have not specifically dealt with support for in-house career development of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, but the results of the present study suggested that in providing support for the career development of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, chief of nurses need to help these nurses have a better sense of the distance between individuals and organizations.
feedback
Top