加齢に伴う高血圧と認知機能の低下との関連に関する研究において、血圧の影響は前頭葉機能の遂行系機能の方が情報速度処理系機能よりも大きいとする、Bucur and Madden (2010)の仮説を2種の研究法で検討した。研究1では八雲研究横断的データを用いて、高血圧群と正常群について認知機能検査（NU-CAB）のうち遂行機能を反映するとみなせる検査項目と情報処理速度を反映するとみなせる項目について比較した。その結果は概ね彼らの仮説を支持するものとなった。研究2では八雲研究縦断的データ（6年間）を使用し、多変量解析を用いて、遂行機能検査項目と情報処理速度検査項目に血圧変数と年齢変数が寄与する効果を検討した。その結果は、血圧変数と検査項目変数との間に交互作用を認めず、仮説は支持されるものではなかった。これらの結果は、Bucur and Madden（2010）の仮説は、方法論の影響を受けない堅牢な妥当性を有するとは言えないことを示唆している。
Relations between physical activity and frontal cortex function in healthy community dwellers over 65 years old were examined using the Yakumo Study database. In Study 1, based on the questionnaire response on physical activity habit in everyday life, the proportion of the population who is making habits of physical activity was investigated. As a result, 60 % of respondents answered that they do not exercise as a whole, even half of respondents who continued participating for more than 3 years stopped exercising in less than 7 years and 7 % continued for 11 years. It has become clear that it is extremely difficult to continue physical activity in everyday life even if they realize that a physical activity is effective for maintaining and improving cognitive function. In Study 2, the relationship between the linear regression coefficients for attention-related cognitive tests after 65-year-old and the presence or absence of continued physical activity habits was examined. As a result, it was revealed that the group continuing for more than 6 years was superior to the group without habit for the decrease in attention performance. Although the physical activity in everyday life is considered effective in preventing frontal lobe function deterioration due to aging, it is not easy to engage and continue it for ordinary community dwellers. A constant and effective external reinforce seems necessary to make physical daily activity as a habit.
Newspapers were influenced indirectly by the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE) in GHQ, who was responsible for media policy during the occupation period in Japan. This method was not forced like censorship, but rather was an educational approach, where newspaper editors were assembled. Despite this approach being unforced and indirect, newspapers in Japan gradually changed their articles to match the ideals promoted by the CIE. Why did the CIE adopt such an approach, and why was the control of the press so effective despite the chosen methods of influence being indirect and uncoercive? To answer these questions, this paper examined press conferences and focused analysis on reports about trials of war criminals, as a perception gap between the GHQ and Japanese media existed from the beginning of the occupation on the subject of war criminals. The solution was a press conference. At this conference, it was requested that newspaper editors ask vigorous questions to the CIE. Meanwhile, the CIE did not issue direct instructions, but instead focused on explaining the occupation policy and promoting their ideal image of what a newspaper should strive for. As a result, Japanese newspapers took on the advice of the CIE, and, using American newspapers as a model, began voluntarily including human interest stories into their reporting. Likewise, the CIE was able to gain a clearer understanding of the perception held by Japanese newspaper editors and then could use this knowledge in future occupation policy. This interactive nature was the significance of this press conference.
One of the study techniques of the Sociology of law is a technique for finding a concept of a new law. In this study, it is pointed out that Chinese "law" is different from "law" of Western countries. The author referred to "The essay of theatrical law thought in China whose theme is on Zhang Xiao-Li" case, and also "Unseen rule in Chinese society" written by Takanori Kato. However, this past report has a point lacking. This paper is the addendum to make up for that lack. The conclusion of this paper is China has "Closed law" and must not trust Chinese "law" and there is a function to deceive the people. This paper assumes it as a whole, the Chinese "law" is modeled as "The phenomenon in the theaters".
In this study, we examined the effects social networking service (SNS) applied in academic education on the facilitation of students' positive attitude toward their university. In the targeted class, both the students and teachers were encouraged to use SNS to exchange information. The students' attitudes toward their university were measured by using implicit and explicit methods at the beginning and at the end of the academic period. The results revealed that participants exhibiting low SNS usage tended to have poorer attitudes as evident from both implicit and explicit measures. This suggested that they formed a negative attitude by the end of the session. On the other hand, the worsening of the pro-university attitude was not observed in participants exhibiting high SNS use. The psychological process underlying the positive effects of active SNS usage was discussed.
The purpose of this research was to understand and determine factors that affect information-seeking behavior of a public project, especially a nuclear power facility. Participants answered a questionnaire. We compared two periods: considering 6 months following the Great East Japan Earthquake as "crisis time" and 6 months preceding our studies (January to July 2015 in Study 1 and May to November 2015 in Study 2) as "ordinary times." The results showed that people sought information to different extents depending on their situations. Participants reported that they sought more external information during the crisis time than in ordinary times in both the studies. Additionally, the results showed that cognition of the possibility of harm did not affect information-seeking behavior. On the other hand, participants who showed high cognition of the possibility of change in social norms engaged more in information-seeking behavior. Based on the results, we have discussed means to improve social acceptance of public projects.
What is the way to foster safety culture? This paper considers safety culture and leadership to foster safety culture of healthcare organizations, and organizational culture and a concept of leadership was adopted. Safety culture is included in organizational culture, however, safety culture emphasizes safety. Leadership is the main factor which makes organizational function of organizational culture. However, there are several types for leadership. Therefore, servant leader as nurse痴 leadership was adopted. Servant leadership is a leader and a leader who serves. This paper points out a nurse as servant leader of leadership of the healthcare organizations. Also, it is necessary to take notice of the nurse痴 validity as the servant leader.
This paper investigates Tiebout's conjecture on the role of heterogeneity in tastes for local public goods in the context of income-tax competition and Helpman-type model of New Economic Geography (NEG, hereafter). We identify two symmetric regions that compete for capital, which is mobile instantaneously between regions and is combined with an immobile factor, land, to produce the housing service. Following the literature of tax competition, it is assumed that each local government spends the tax revenue for providing local public goods in its region. Workers are producing differentiated private goods that facilitate the agglomeration economy as in NEG literature. They choose to migrate to the preferable region in the long run. We assume that uniform distribution is carried out according to the degree of attachment to public goods. We show that agglomeration economies tend to appear when transportation costs are high, which is similar to the result of Helpman-type NEG model, while it is also shown that heterogeneity of preferences for public goods works as either centripetal or centrifugal force, depending on the parameters in simulations. That is, the heterogeneity of households might not work as the dispersion force such as immobile workers in Krugman-type NEG model. This result implies that many patterns might exist in population arrangement that Tiebout's conjecture asserts under the settings of income-tax competition and the agglomeration forces in private sectors.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the process of the chief of of nurses' cognition of "support for in-house career development" of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, whose proportion in the workplace is expected to increase in the future. Semi-structured interviews of 16 chief of nurses were conducted, and the responses were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. The results revealed that the chief of nurses' cognition process involved 3 steps. In the step of "grasping phenomena", they cognized the and . In the step of "focusing on problems", they cognized the and . Finally, in the step of "realizing support methods", they cognized the . Previous nursing management studies have not specifically dealt with support for in-house career development of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, but the results of the present study suggested that in providing support for the career development of non-supervisory, middle-aged and older nurses, chief of nurses need to help these nurses have a better sense of the distance between individuals and organizations.