人間環境学研究
Online ISSN : 1883-7611
Print ISSN : 1348-5253
ISSN-L : 1348-5253
16 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
原著
  • ターン 有加里ジェシカ, 村田 光二, 唐沢 かおり
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 77-82
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    There are a considerable number of cases reported that an ex-convict's children are negatively perceived even though they themselves have not committed a crime. However, there are few quantitative researches and reasons for the negative perception have not been discussed well. This study hypothesized that the negative perception is associative stigma, and a reason for the stigma is genetic essentialism. Associative stigma is the tendency to being stigmatized or devalued based on his or her association with a stigmatized person. Genetic essentialism is the tendency to ascribe genes as a fixed and underlying nature to members of a category. An experiment was conducted, where all the participants were shown two separated vignettes of a middle-aged man who was a murderer, and of a boy who slapped his classmate. Also, the participants were given a minimum amount of information about the relationships between the two protagonists; they were randomly divided into three conditions, Child-by-blood condition (CBB), Child-by-adoption condition (CBA), and Unrelated condition (URL). If the hypothesis is supported, the boy would be perceived negatively most by CBB and least by URL. The results showed that while the boy was perceived more negatively by CBB than by URL when the perception of the middle-aged man, the murderer, was controlled, there was no such difference between CBA and URL. Although there was no difference between CBB and CBA, which contradicts with the hypothesis that genetic essentialism is a reason for the stigma, considering that there was a significant difference only between CBB and URL and not between CBA and URL, there is the possibility of the existence of genetic essentialism.
  • 鈴木 啓太, 岡 蒼透, 村本 由紀子
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 83-88
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous research of implicit theories has revealed that when a person needs to evaluate others ability, incremental theorists (who believe ability is malleable) tend to value effort, whereas entity theorists (who believe ability is fixed) tend to value results. However, recent research shows that entity theorists tend to search and find the most appropriate task for themselves on task performance, suggesting that it would be more important among entity theorists than incremental theorists to make precise evaluation of ability. Based on this assumption, we hypothesised that, when entity theorists need to evaluate other's ability, they would use the information of whether he/she made enough effort or not. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a paper and pencil experiment by using a vignette of a figure who is preparing for exam, in which we manipulated (1) the amount of effort the figure made and (2) whether the figure's grades improved or not. We measured to what extent participants would attribute the outcome to the figure's ability and effort, and how much effort they would request to the figure for his future performance. As a result, entity theorists attributed the outcome to the figure's ability when his grades improved with little effort or did not improve despite his effort. Also, entity theorists requested the figure to make further effort when he did not work hard and his grades did not improve. These results suggest that entity theorists evaluate other's ability not just by outcome but by paying attention to the information of his/her effort.
  • 川上 清文, 高井 清子, 川上 文人
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 89-92
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    私たちは、「幼児の見えない物を使う能力を調べるための方法」を考案し、実験してみた。この方法では複雑な手続きや言語教示を必要としない。研究1では10人の幼児を対象とし、実験手続きと、「拒否・無視」から「言語反応」までの発達の5過程が確立された。研究2では67人が対象となり、発達の5過程は対象児の日齢と相関することが示された。そして研究3では11人の対象児を縦断的に追跡したところ、過程は安定していたことが明らかになった。本論文で示された新しい方法は、今後幼児の認知発達を研究するのに有効であろうと考えられる。
  • 阪口 公彬, 川北 貴士, 鈴木 千賀
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 93-96
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では、ベック津田β法、汚濁指数法を用いて、長野県飯田市阿智村に流れる阿智川・周辺の水辺を拠点とし、計測方法・考察を例に、地域マネジメントに寄与するべく水質調査の学習例案を提案したものである。実験は、阿智川その他3地点を拠点にし、同時期・時間・採集方法における水生生物を指数に用い、それぞれの計測指数に当てはめることで数値を測定した。調査では、調査地において6月に生育している水生生物を主な判断材料とし、ピンセットで捕獲できる大きさの個体のみを使用した。その結果、砂防ダム前を拠点とした川で2種の判定方法共に、水質は貧腐水性の数値が計測できた。ダム前という事で酸素の供給が絶えず行われており、林冠も見られ有機物の供給も豊富であると判断できた。また、底質環境からも多様性を高めている大きな要因と判断でき、水質階級Ⅰのカワゲラであるキカワゲラほか多数採集することができた。さらには、今回のこの調査結果をもとに、阿智川周辺の生物を基調とした水質判断シートを作成し、昼神温泉郷の旅客に配布することで人々が生物に興味を持つ機会を提供した。環境学習としての川・水質の保全への関心を高めるというその学習目的を地域環境マネジメントにも活用することが出来た。
  • 蛭牟田 誠, 鈴木 孝治, 大橋 美穂, 粥川 知子, 青柳 陽一郎
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 97-102
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    頭蓋咽頭腫に対する術後に意識障害を認め、意識障害改善後に注意障害、記憶障害を中心とした高次脳機能障害を呈した40代男性に対し、情報処理過程としての高次脳機能の過程に従いリハビリテーションアプローチを行った。記憶障害に対しては直接的アプローチに加え、外的補助手段としてメモリーノートを導入した。しかし、記憶障害に対する障害認識を十分持ち合わせておらず、効果的な導入は困難であった。そこでアウェアネスの概念に沿ったアプローチを実施した。その結果、WMS-R等の評価で改善を認めた。また知的アウェアネスの獲得に至り、メモリーノートを自発的に確認することが可能となった。階層モデルに従い、アプローチをしていくことで症例の現状や段階を捉えやすくなりリハビリテーション介入がよりスムースとなった。
  • 八田 武志, 八田 武俊, 岩原 昭彦, 八田 純子, 伊藤 恵美, 堀田 千絵, 永原 直子, 加藤 公子, 藤原 和美
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 103-109
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of newly developed questionnaire to assess the burden expressive suppression for Japanese (J-BES) (Hatta et al., 2018). Reliability was assessed by the comparison of responses of J-BES between 2017 and 2018 of the same population and checked whether the factor structures are the same to those of 2017. Validity assessment was conducted firstly by examining of the correlation between scores of J-BES and the executive function tests (EF: D-CAT, Stroop test). Further, validity was compared using daily living behavior items related to EF for the high and the low score groups based upon subject's J-BES score by a median value whether there is a difference. Factor analyses of J-BES using two different populations revealed that both consisted of same factors and re-administration of one year later showed no correlation. Correlations between J-BES and EF tests were low and further high and low J-BES groups showed non-significant difference in EF test scores. These findings suggest low validity of the J-BES. However, possible reason of the discrepancy from previous study (Niermeyer, Franchow, & Suchy, 2016) might be participants' difference. Previous study relied mainly on young females but 40-80 years old community-dwellers were the participants in this study. Further studies are indispensable before concluding that J-BES is not worthy of use with low reliability or validity.
  • 堀田 千絵, 加藤 久恵, 多鹿 秀継
    2018 年 16 巻 2 号 p. 111-120
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to examine whether the lesson based on the jigsaw method (Aronson, 1978; Brown, 1997) introduced the repeated retrieval-based learning for promoting student's metacognition could have effects on the encouragements of their students' initiative and communication skills. Ninety-seven students participated the lesson consisted of five phases. First, they grasped the meanings of lesson theme and took the self-affirmation awareness scale as a pre-measurement. Second, during the expert phase, they studied an assigned part of texts related to lesson theme by retrieval-based learning. Third, in the jigsaw group, each students were asked to explain an assigned part of texts for the remaining group members in turns by using the four metacognitive strategies (Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Fourth, students in the representative group made the presentation related to theme through the cross talk. Finally, all students took the self-affirmation awareness scale as a post-measurement and were asked to give feedback for the lesson in free description. As a result, in free descriptions, it seems that many students realized an importance of additional learning related to theme. More importantly, as a whole, the results showed that the lesson practice in this study had positive effects on the encouragements of the students' initiative and reduced interpersonal tension in self-affirmation awareness scale. We summarized the three points for the benefits of the lesson practice in this study.
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