This paper deals with an issue, why did Bernhard Windscheid write the literature on the actio of the roman civil law. He asserted that the actio of the roman civil law was not the right of bringing an action into court (Klagerecht), but the right of requesting an act against the another party (Anspruch). Through this assertion, he intended to reconstruct the system of the german material private law. The system which he made an attemt to establish took over a system, that Friedrich Carl von Savigny had asserted for bringing the new perspective into the german common law (gemeines Recht) in the 19th century. The actio-system of the roman civil law was replaced in the german common law by the new system of Savigny and Windscheid, which is called "the system of rights" by Professor Yasuhiro Ikadatsu.
Evidences that show the executive functions associated with frontal lobe of the brain may selectively maintain or enhance the human higher levels of fitness have been accumulated though it is limited. The present article tried to provide evidences that show relationship between physical exercise habits and cognitive function. Participants were 400 community dwellers in rural town (their age ranged from 40 years old to 88 years old) and they were administered Nagoya University Cognitive Assessment Battery (NU-CAB) that mainly consisted of assessment items for the prefrontal function of human brain. Participants were assigned four groups based on the physical exercise habits strength. Results showed no significant difference among groups in all cognitive tasks, though a slight tendency of relation was seen in cognitive tasks that involve executive system function such as Stroop color naming task.
This study examined whether necessity and sufficiency relations predict the thematic material effect and the perspective effect of the Wason selection task. In the experiment, participants were asked to answer the Wason selection task and the necessity and sufficiency evaluation tasks. These tasks were consisted of 4 versions of conditional statements that were an abstract letter-number rule, a deontic drinking age rule, a day off rule with employer's perspective and a day-off rule with employee's perspective. It was observed that contents of conditional statement determined the participant interpretation of necessity and sufficiency relations, while the perspective which participants took didn't affect on the necessity-sufficiency interpretation. The results also showed that participants selected cards in accordance with their interpretation of necessity and sufficiency relations. These dates support the view that interpretation of necessity and sufficiency relations of the conditional statement affects the performance of conditional inference tasks.
Kita Ikki is well known as a specialist about Xinhai Revolution in China, who went to Shanghai taking part in revolution movements and wrote a book named Shina kakumei gaishi, a private history of the Chinese Revolution after he came back to Japan. Many papers discussed Kita's views about China focusing upon Shina kakumei gaishi, while before Shina kakumei gaishi what his ideas about foreign affairs are is not yet illuminated. This paper will discuss Kita's opinions about foreign affairs before Shina kakumei gaishi by examining his three articles about the Russo-Japanese War and Kokutairon and Pure Socialism.
It has been pointed out that in Japan fundamental morality is on its way to deterioration. Various social problems have been caused by that. A folklorist Yanagita Kunio, known as a leading intellectual in modern Japanese society, recognized the importance of fundamental morality in Japanese society. He thought it would be a meaningful academic discussion for the future Japanese society. In fact, he was foreseeing the serious social situation Japan is now facing. In this paper I would like to discuss his thought-provoking arguments on this issue.
In order to understand neurological and cognitive development, we observed movement pattern of an infant longitudinally under the two different situations. In the spontaneous movement session, we observed spontaneous movements of the infant. In the mobile session, we studied inter-limb movement patterns when the infant attempted moving a mobile using a string attached to his arm and we tested retention of his learning. The infant was born full-term and he visited our laboratory 7 times from 14 days of age to 165 days of age. We used a 3D motion analysis system to track the 14 markers attached to the infant body. Kinematic analysis of the velocity of infant limbs revealed that mean velocity of the limbs decreased around 2 months of age and it increased after 3 months of age. In addition, active and/or complex movement of limbs after 3 months of age was inhibited when the infant attended to the attractive environmental stimulation. This developmental U-shape pattern of the infant spontaneous movement and the inhibitory control of movement suggest a developmental change of neurological motor control from the central pattern generators (CPGs) to the cerebral cortex. Results of the mobile session indicated that the movement pattern during the learning and the retention tests differed with age of the infant. While a general increase in the movements of all the limbs was observed during younger ages, a specific increase in the movements of the connected arm was observed during older ages. This general to specific development is consistent with the result of Watanabe & Taga (2006)'s cross-sectional study using the mobile paradigm.
In this study, I have conducted a principal component analysis on the economic strength and social environment of China's 35 major cities, using 40 recompiled and standardized economic indices based on annual statistical data from 1995-2000. The results confirm that disparities in economic strength exist in the "geographic dual structure" of China's eastern seaboard region and the central and western interior regions, caused by disparities in income and consumption among urban areas. In the social environment, with some exceptions, comparative advantages exist in the postal and telecommunications sector and the water, gas and electric utilities sector in eastern cities; in environmental quality in central cities; and in the transportation sector in central and western cities. These results suggest that central and western urban development will play a significant role in eliminating economic disparities in China, in the meantime, the harmful influence of the existing concentration of populations and urban functions damage the urban social environment, and the rapid increase in environmental burdens from prior urban development has impaired the natural environment's capacity to regenerate, causing urban environmental quality to deteriorate.