This paper concerns a study to discover themes in nurse's education, which has noticeably become a university subject in Japan. In recent years universities are becoming increasingly open. In this paper, what was considered to be important to education during the early era of a nurse's higher-education is given a hermeneutic analysis based on gathered materials, and the points which should be acknowledged as problems will be shown. In the early stage of university education, humanity education was considered as more important than specialized job training. However, today, in order to increase nurse's social status and people's understanding about nurses, expertise is more pursued. In the study to become a nurse, human existence was broken up in order to systematize the study, and it specialized in a holistic form of human understanding or thought processes from one's unique viewpoint. If people who wish to be nurses can only receive an education which is biased towards a holistic form of human understanding or thought processes which are taught only through the filter of expertise, this will mean that these people can not receive a satisfactory education as holistic human beings. Thus, this is a paradox, and this will not lead to a real holistic understanding of human beings. Today's education for nurses faces a situation in which nurses who are supposed to contribute to people and society are lacking in the social knowledge of their patients. When a new university system was created in the past, the institution for higher education for nurses was expected to nurture "women with education and elegance," and virtue as a human being was taught, while one was being trained for one's job. In addition, the academic spirit as well as the broad range of education other than in specialties had importance laid on it. A human education through a cultured professional education was aimed at, but this didn't mean a kind of job training. It is important for the field of nursing to seek expertise and to aim at being a profession, but academic study in nursing doesn't exist only as job-training. If a nurse is to be nurtured at a university, the aim has to be to nurture "a cultured professional" through the cultivation of the academic spirit. For this, educators themselves are expected to have a higher and a broader range of sophistication in an environment where they can be conscious that they have a holistic existence. And also, while they seek for specialties, they are expected to provide their students with an environment where they can learn more than such specialties. At universities which are becoming more open we must give serious thought towards how to carry out education that provides for "a cultured professional" and character formation within the paradox of seeking specialties and character formation. I propose this as the theme of this essay.
Recently, various kinds of sounds are flooding over in our living environment. For the relation between sound environment and people, we have been obtained a lot of information from researches of noise evaluation. On the other hand, in the familiar environment, we research a significant attribute of each sound. It is important to consider the relationship between receivers of sounds and sounds or sound makers, and those circumstances as the whole issue of sounds. In this research, we concentrate a significant attribute that sounds have, and investigate the system that acknowledges living environmental sound by examining how people feel the environmental sounds in their life. As a result, we could obtain following information. (1) For the reason people are conscious of living environmental sounds and feel comfort/discomfort for sounds, the environmental factor whether sounds fit to the environment or not would exist. (2) The relationship between a living environment and each sound is suggested to be classified into following four categories. i) An impression of the scene and the living environmental sound are agreed. ii) Particular sound has strong effect. iii) A comprehensive of comfort/discomfort for all subconscious living environmental sound decides the degree of comfort/discomfort of the whole scene. iv) The scene and living environmental sounds are separated.
Due to the individualization of family, their gathering place in a house has been changing from a Living room to a Dining-kitchen. In this research, we survey family's communication style in their house. At the same time, we examine "Center-kitchen" that has the promotional communicating function for the future fireside place of family. It is not the most important point if people use Center-kitchen or not, but its image is, "the space where each family member can have a good communication and has enough space not to disturb family's activity." In the family who use Center-kitchen, we can see that everyone naturally help housework, they share the good time in the kitchen, and having meals together is becoming the most important time for their life. Center-kitchen hasn't been valued because people are distressed about arrangements. Although kitchen is becoming opened-space today, most of people still think it is an occupied space by housewives or women. However, since Center-kitchen satisfies people's food-centered life, an influence of physical aspect is compensated. It is predicted each family's life style will be diversified from now on, and at the same time, the concept of how kitchen should be will be variously changed. We need to notice an importance of choosing the most suitable kitchen for each family.
Previous work has shown that recalling information from long-term memory can impair the long-term retention of related information - a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (M. C. Anderson, R. A. Bjork, & E. L. Bjork, 1994). The purpose of the present article is to review studies on retrieval-induced forgetting, discussing the ordinal experimental paradigm (called retrieval-practice paradigm) and typical results of some experiments. Then, the validity of two hypotheses, blocking and suppression, are considered based on several data that characterize retrieval-induced forgetting. Although it may be more valid to assume suppression as a mental process in explaining retrieval-induced forgetting than blocking, several problems that the current suppression account should overcome are discussed. Finally, as examples of recent spreading directions in research on retrieval-induced forgetting, applications to the contexts of eyewitness testimony and basic studies using explicit/implicit paradigm are discussed.
Factors to purchase dwelling were examined by questionnaires addressed for 586 people of age 19 to 84 years old. This study first examined whether the priority level of four factors (area of house, quality of house, peripheral environment, and regional environment) to purchase dwelling depends on human life stage (adolescence, early middle aged, late middle aged, and old aged). The results showed a gender difference and the effect of the life stage on the priority level; male adolescence showed priority on the quality of house whereas old aged male felt priority on the peripheral environment, female adolescence showed the priority on the quality of house and female late middle aged also showed advantage on the quality of house, etc. Second, factors that might affect on the priority level to purchase dwelling were investigated. That is, the relationship between subjective physical efficacy evaluation and the priority level was analyzed. The results showed that high score participants in the self physical efficacy test showed a priority on the quality of house whereas low score participants showed a priority on the peripheral environment that reflects the convenience of shopping and going to hospital. Third and finally, the effect of the tendency of family oriented of participant on the priority level was examined. The results showed that both low score and high score participants on family hearth evaluation items showed a similar tendency of the priority level to purchase dwelling. These results suggest that ideal dwelling depends strongly on the life stage and subjective evaluation of physical activity.
Yoshino Sakuzo, the most important leading thinker in Taisyo Democracy and a specialist on Sino-Japan relationship, died in 1933 just one and a half year after the Manchurian Incident. He put his comments about the Manchurian Incident into a few articles before 1933. This paper will discuss Yoshino Sakuzo's opinions about the Manchurian Incident so that we can illuminate Yoshino's points of view regarding Sino-Japan relationship and Washington Treaty System from 1931 to 1933.
An attempt to recover damaged social solidarities in the age of globalisation is required evading the exclusivist character communitarianism often have. As for this point, Anthony Giddens' theoretical project aims at being openness through his idea of civic association. According to Giddens, the association consists of intelligent agents as competent members of society. The abstractness of 'intelligent' let him be able to discuss every matter of human relationship; from a renewal of local community to a realisation of cosmopolitan democracy. Civic association, however, has possibilities of leading to other social exclusion at practical level because the criterion of 'intelligent' agent is quite unclear. Giddens' attempt paradoxically shows it's never easy to suggest a practical means of recovering social solidarities in the dialectical relation of the local and global.
This paper introduces four specific materials to discuss the complex and difficult negotiations of the United States and Japan during the London Naval Conference of 1930. The first is a telegram sent by Stimson, head of the American delegation, to President Hoover which shows that before the conference opened Stimson had resisted the Japanese firm claim for a 10:7 ratio in auxiliary vessels because the United States Senate would not accept it when it was submitted. As the conference went on, however, Stimson received a telegram from William R. Castle, the American Ambassador to Japan, reporting about the current situation in Japan and Castle's impression on how the Japanese leaders like Shidehara Kijuro were thinking. Stimson sent a confidential letter to President on February, 17 to give him some background information about the progress made in the conference so far. Furthermore, he expressed his expectation that Wakatsuki Reijiro, head of the Japanese delegation, would make a decision to accept the American proposition. Stimson explained the benefits of the three-power agreement for the United States in the hearings before the United States Foreign Relations Committee on May 12, 13, and 14. Ultimately, the London Naval Treaty of 1930 was ratified by a vote of 58 to 9.