The command team as a decision-making team under the complex task environment is required both the simple technical skills and the non-technical skills including the managerial skills and the social skills to manage the group process effectively and efficiently. However, little is known about how the Japanese command team members recognize the value of those non-technical skills and whether the non-technical education is needed or not, in the context of the actual field operation requirements. This paper is intended as an investigation of the Japanese command team. This study conducted a case study about the 3 command teams, 21 members, of the fire department of Kyoto city and employed the 8 individual interviews, the 5 group interviews, the document analysis, and the questionnaire using NOTECHS (a behavioral marker system of the non-technical skills). The questionnaire contained 3 phases. At the first phase, team members evaluated the degree of the change on their task environment because the change of the task environment indicates the potential the needs for new skills to adapt the changed task requirements. The next phase, they evaluated the importance of the non-technical skills. These non-technical skills were identified by referring to the NOTECHS and categorized "cooperation" "leadership and management" "situation awareness" "decision making". Finally, it surveyed the needs of technical, non-technical, procedural educations. As a result, in general, high evaluations were dominant on both changes of the task environment and needs of the non-technical skills and they recognized the needs of the non-technical skills education as well as the technical and the procedural educations. In detail, however, we can see some items which have the low agreement levels in 3 non-technical skills categories except "situation awareness". This shows the NOTECHS might be an inappropriate measure system to Japanese command team, or this team member should construct the higher agreement level. It remains as a matter to be discussed further.
Various vehicles are integrally evaluated in energy efficiencies, costs, the sustainability in combination with renewable energy, and the infrastructure transferability to the future vehicle system. Energy efficiency of the electric vehicle (EV) is the most excellent at 0.89MJ/km and plug-in hybrid vehicles (plug-in HV) have also better excellent at 1.03 of gasoline and 0.95 MJ/km of diesel than 1.1 MJ/km of the fuel cell EV (FCEV). Cost performance of plug-in G-HV and EV with 16 kWh battery show much more excellent than that of FCEV. EV as well as plug-in HV shows the good sustainability and the transferability, while FCEV has serious problems such as H2 supply infrastructure. Evaluated integrally, plug-in HV and EV with about 16 kWh battery are the most promising vehicles in the future. The sustainable vehicle system of plug-in HV in combination with the renewable energy such as solar and wind powers can be made by the following systems; one is that the part of the profit in the wind power side is transferred in the solar power side by the individual green electric power certificate and the other is that the part of the cost in solar power side is transferred in the electricity charge.
The purpose of this paper is to consider whether healthcare teams (or medical teams) can address autonomous team-building. The work of healthcare organizations is being carried out by teams and groups, it is inevitable that healthcare workers, such as doctors, nurses and co-medical personnel, work in a team environment. A considerable number of studies have been conducted on healthcare teams in America, Britain, Japan, so on. It was found from these studies that doctors and nurses perceived their team-work and team-climate differently, and that there was a perception gap of team-work between them. Therefore, the focus of discussions has been on collaboration that leads to conflict resolution. In this study, we focused on the stages of development in team-building. It is likely that this approach will allow teams to run effectively by themselves, because the stages of team-building development are regarded as an informal process by which team members attempt to create effective social structures and work processes on their own. The analysis was conducted based on the results of the 3 team leader's individual interviews about their team management and the questionnaire of all members (3 teams, 28 people) about their perceptions of the existing team condition. As a result, 2 teams in 3 teams were functioning effectively from a team-building perspective. That is, it was showed that healthcare teams could address autonomous team-building. The findings of this study were as follows; (1) in the orientation stage, team members and team leaders need to understand team characteristics and team behaviors, (2) healthcare professionals need the task interaction that makes the most of their expertise in the team as well as interpersonal interaction, (3) team leaders can manage autonomous team-building.
The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Lavie's load theory (Lavie, 2005) from the point of view of cerebral lateralization. In Experiment 1, right-handed participants were asked to discriminate a target letter in a task-relevant letters-array which was presented at a left or right visual-field, while ignoring a letter (distractor) which was presented above or below a central fixation. We manipulated the perceptual load (high/low) of the task-relevant letter-arrays and the compatibility between a target and a distractor. The results showed that the compatibility effect was larger in the low load condition than in the high load condition irrespective of visual-field, which supported the load theory. The second experiment was the same as Experiment 1, except that a triangle, the high-load letter-array and the distractor were simultaneously presented. We set up two object conditions; within-object and across-object conditions. In the former condition, the letter-array and the distractor was presented within the triangle. In the latter, only the letter-array was presented within the triangle and the distractor was presented outside the triangle. The results showed that in the left visual-field condition, the compatibility effect was observed only in the within-object condition, not in the across-object condition, whereas in the right visual-field condition, it was observed in both the conditions. These results suggested that selective attention is modulated by cerebral dominance for letter search.
Present study examined the relationship between cosmetic behavior and higher brain function of middle and aged female people. Participants were 181 community dwellers in rural town (their age ranged from 39 to 91 years old). They had a cognitive test battery as a part of medical checkup. The used cognitive test was Nagoya University Cognitive Assessment Battery (NU-CAB) that mainly consisted of items for the examination of prefrontal brain function. Results of habitual cosmetic behavior examination with aging suggested that middle and old women quitted from the makeup behavior in the first stage and then the care cosmetic behavior such as skin care in the second stage. Results of cognitive function showed that the participants habitually having the care cosmetic behavior were higher than the participants habitually did not in several cognitive tests. These results suggest a relationship between sustaining of cosmetic behavior and decline of higher brain function in the aged people.
The purpose of present studies was to assess the effects of visual-motor memory on the recall performance of the Rey-Osterreich Complex Figure. Experiment 1 replicated the findings of Freudenberger & Crescenzo (2003) that the copy treatment subjects scored higher on their recall of the figure than the no copy treatment subjects under incidental learning conditions. In contrast, the advantage of copy treatment is eliminated under intentional learning conditions. Experiment 2 showed that the recall performance of the Rey-Osterreich Complex Figure was unaffected by the motor interference task. These findings suggest a possibility that the advantage of copy treatment in Freudenberger & Crescenzo (2003) was not dependent on the visual-motor memory. It was concluded that the selective attention to the figure facilitated by copy treatment may have played a critical role in the recall performance.
This thesis examines the way in which social relationship and meaningful facial signals (eye gaze and emotional facial expressions) influence the allocation of visual attention. Eighteen healthy right-handed undergraduate students were participated as subjects. Three (social relationship: significant others, known others, unknown others) x three (facial emotions: angry, happy, neutral) x three (feedback: available, no, random) factors were located within a subject. In the visual cueing paradigm, after a cue (face with averted gaze) was presented, subjects were required to answer the location of simultaneously presented target by pressing one of two buttons (right or left). Results suggest that while the type of emotion (angry or happy) expressed by significant others does influence rather than that of both known others and unknown others the allocation of attention when the gaze direction does not match to the target location. These findings are discussed in terms of how the social meaning of the stimulus can influence preattentive processing of visual orienting.
Many past studies on climate policy have pointed out that scientists appealed global change problems to policy makers for the first time in 1985 in Villach, and the recommendation to address setting the country's reduction targets at the Toronto Conference in 1988 introduced for the first time the climate policy of developed countries. And by the end of the Cold War, many politicians pushed climate policy as the next agenda for international policies. In this context, it is said that "Science has conducted policy", and "Political will of politicians made climate policy." When and how has climate policy itself been created? All policies have their "policy cycle" which consists of "problem perception", "agenda setting", "policy formulation", "decision making", "implementation", "evaluation"and "termination." In this thesis, we inspect the creation process of climate policy from "problem perception" to "policy formulation," "decision making", and reference governmental documents. "Problem perception" of climate change, caused by anthropological global warming, started in 1970 by the government of the United States. "Global 2000" which was researched and published by the United States government in 1980, has many effects in developing the "Problem perception" of other countries, including Japan. The Japanese government (Environment Agency) established a committee on global environmental problems in 1980. The "problem perception" phase started ten years later in Japan than in the United States. The Declaration of the United Nations in 1982 in Nairobi introduced "problem perception" in the United Nations. The idea of climate policy consists of "precautionary environment policy," which was introduced by OECD in 1979 and "sustainable development," which proposed by Brundtland Commission in 1987. Finally, "policy formulation" and "decision making" has been done by many developed countries without the United States setting its own CO2 reduction targets in 1990.
"Agenda 21" which made up of over 1,000 actions to realize "Rio Declaration on Environment and Development" was adopted in the Earth Summit in 1992. Agenda 21 required to establish "Local Agenda 21" for local authorities with communication of many sectors. After the Earth Summit, a lot of local authorities made up Local agenda 21 all over the world. Local Agenda 21 should have three elements, one is aiming to realize sustainable society, another is action plan with long-term perspective, and the other is draw-ing up them based on citizens' participation. I considered the achievement and problems of Local Agenda 21 through studying the situations and processes of Local Agenda 21 in Germany especially for Munich, Dessau, and Berlin. It was found that it was possible to classify promotion systems of projects and operating frameworks into three types. In case of Munich, citizens play central roles in making up the action plans and implementing projects. In case of Dessau, agenda projects were settled adjusting NGO's and local government's projects in existence. In case of Berlin, citizens designed action plans as Local Agenda 21. The action plans were made adjust-ment with local government and they should be received congressional approval. Local agenda 21 in Germany faced difficult problems and grew stagnant now because of budget problems, conflict with congress, and citizens' tiredness of keeping motivation. Moving immediately from planning into action is essential for Local Agenda 21 and for sustainable society.
For the rapid increase of waste generation from building demolitions and improvement of infrastructure in the next 30 years, the problem such as demand-supply imbalance of recycled concretes and asphalt-concretes has predicted to be caused. With this background the laws and rules (law system) for construction and demolition waste recycling has an important position at nationwide level. But the law system, which command recycle through the separation of demolition wastes and expect for the constructors to use recycled concretes and asphalt-concretes, have difficulties to deal with the problem. In this paper, we studied about the law system and researched two phases of the law system: 1) recycling of demolished concretes, 2) the use of recycled concretes. As a result, we find the problems at the use of recycled concretes phase. We pointed out necessity of extending the specified application for recycled concretes and a reform of administrative orders process.
Nagata Tetsuzan is known as one of the leading figures of the Imperial Army after Manchurian incident. However, it can be said that the full- scale research on him has not been done yet. The author has interpreted so far Nagata's visions and policies during 1920s and Manchurian incident. This paper focuses on the period from April 1932 to August 1933 while he was chief of the intelligence divisions of the general staff to explore what Nagata was thinking particularly in 1933. Those are the times when a committee was organized among chief officials in the war ministry, which brought about contentions between two factions of army officers; the Imperial Way group (Kohdoh-ha) and the Control Faction (Tohsei-ha). And furthermore, during that time, Nagata and his group were clearly coming out with their political stance towards the movement of national reconstruction by younger military officers. This period historically has a significant meaning.
Nursing is more than physical attending of the patients. We, nurses have to encourage patients in their will to live in their human relations. The same is true with taking care of female homeless. This paper aimed at gathering as many data about the health and life (including the human relations) of female homeless as possible and forming basic materials for helping support the health of the elderly homeless women. In this study, we took the following method; (A) Fact-finding interviews with homeless women focusing on the past background that have brought them into homeless situation, their health and their relation with other people, (B) Symbolic figure placement (DLT) test (this is the test to know the subject's human relation with others by asking her to put miniature dolls representing persons she is acquainted with near the doll representing herself.) The results of DLT; The distance between the subject and her present husband (or partner) was 2.2 cm in average, and that between her and her ideal image of husband was 2.4 cm, so there was not much difference. Only one child was put with the distance of 2.1 cm from the woman who put it, while seven ideal children were put with the average distance of 2.01 cm. In the present real situation, the total of 12 friends were put with the average distance of 4.7 cm, while in the ideal situation the same 12 friends were put with the shorter distance of 3.9 cm in average. As to pets, in the real situation the average distance was 3.7 cm, and in the ideal situation it was the same 3.7 cm. The number of persons related to the women was 23 in the real situation, but in the ideal situation it was 38, showing a marked increase.
This article examines recent public attitudes in the United States towards climage change (global warming). This article analyzes this issue in the context of the following topics: the rise of environmental NPOs in the U.S.; the relations between them and the two major American political parties (Democrats and Republicans); the influence exerted by environmental NPOs in Washington, D.C.; oil prices and globalization; recent public opinion polls concerning global warming; thoughts and activities of Albert Gore on global warming; and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Americans are increasingly concerned about global warming but they tend to prioritize non-environmental issues over environmental issues in policy urgency. What is reported in the Japanese press about American debates over global warming can be potentially misleading.