The optimum waste treatment was examined for the system of a garbage bio-gasification along with an incineration. Inventories of the environmental loading and costs of the life cycle are calculated for the combination system of the garbage bio-gasification facility and the gasification fusion furnace. The life cycle cost and the environmental loading are greatly dependent on applications of the generating bio-gas and purifying methods of the waste water from the facility. The desirable system is that garbage is sorted in home and is treated with the bio-gasification facility and the bio-gas is introduced and combined to the power generation of the incinerator, leading to the high efficient power generation, and that the waste water from the bio-gas facility is run in the public sewerage after the simple purification in the system.
The present study investigated how the individuals accommodate their schema to adapt to stressful environments. The environments have been changing rapidly over the past few decades. Recently, adaptation to environments and well-being have been brought to public attention. It has been proposed that the degree of perceived stress in a certain environment is largely affected by personality differences. From this view point, the adaptation system is static. On the other hand, as Piaget pointed out, there is an interest in the dynamic adaptation system. In his theory, the individuals accommodate their inner environments by interacting with their social environment. Such an adaptation system can be called "adaptation schema". There has been almost no study to investigate the mechanism of the adaptation schema so far. We have tried to make a hypothetical model of this schema and identified their components as follows: social support, achievement and social competency, physical competency, self-fulfillment motivation, achievement motivation, vulnerability, problem focused strategy, emotional focused strategy, and sense of self. The scale to measure how much an individual relies on these components is the stress self-regulation inventory (SSI). Participants, university students, completed the SSI and perceived stress inventory. These nine factor scores, and correlation patterns among the nine factors, were compared between high-stress group (N=41) and low-stress group (N=41). The results were as follows: (1) Using t-test, the problem focused strategy score in the high-stress group was higher than the low-stress group. The other scores were not significantly different between the two groups. (2) The number of significant correlations in high-stress group were less than in the low-stress group. (3) The correlation patterns were overconcentrated on "social support" in the high-stress group and more evenly diffused to almost all factors in the low-stress group. In conclusion, the individuals accommodate their adaptation schema according to the degree of perceived stress. Individuals under high stress cope by reducing their coping strategies to mainly "social support", thereby preventing overadaptation and preserving mental resources.
The letter fluency test requires participants to generate as many words as they can in a limited time. Since the study indicated that strategy is not necessarily common for Japanese, present study was carried out to seek what kind of strategy Japanese employ in the letter fluency test and how strategy difference influence on the performances. In this study, three hundred thirty five subjects (age ranged 38-86 years old) took part in the Japanese letter fluency test. Participants who used the AIUEO order strategy (i.e. searching with in the order of Japanese syllabary) in switching generated significantly more words than participants who did not use that strategy. Mean performances of the AIUEO strategy user was 7.41 and that of no-user were 5.93. However, the switching time of both groups was not different. In the Japanese letter fluency test, Japanese preferred a retrieving strategy based on the AIUEO order to the other strategy such as random search. This is unique for Japanese compared to Alphabetic language user. Further, the study suggested that participants employ the AIUEO strategy was useful in switching to invite superior performances though previous studies have not pointed out.
Recently, Anderson & Green (2001) showed that people could forget the specific memory, using the Think/No-Think paradigm. However, precise procedure of the Think/No-Think paradigm did not clearly reported in Anderson & Green's (2001) paper. Therefore, the aim of this article was to report that our modifying new type of Think/No-Think paradigm could lead to stable memory impairment effect. The new type of the Think/No-Think paradigm consisted of (1) Memorization; (2) Memorization assessment; (3) No-Think training; (4) Think/No-Think; (5) Cued recall testing. Main modified points involved in (1), (2), (3) and (4). More concretely, first, study stimuli were changed weak related pairs into the unrelated one to reduce the ceiling effect (1). Next, Memorization was assessed by participant's saying the correct response twice in succession with respect to each cue word so that the study of cue-target for each could become equal criterion (2). Also, in the No-Think training (3) and Think/No-Think phase (4), the way of presentation of the to-be-suppressed items and a number of Think/No-Think trials were changed. In the No-Think condition, participants were asked to learn the to-be-suppressed 10 cue words before main Think/No-Think phase, instead of judging the suppression or response trials by the red (suppress) or green (respond) colors. Additionally, they must continue performing the Think/No-Think task while judging whether the presented cue word was to-be-suppressed or to-be-responded one. Finally, a number of the Think/No-Think trials were reduced from 377 to 242 trials to minimize the fatigue effect on the performance of the Think/No-Think tasks. Further, the numbers of presentations of the suppression/response trials for each were 0, 4, and 12. Based upon the revision of the above four points, two experiments (N=48) were conducted. The results of both experiments showed that the final cued recall performance of the 12 suppression condition was worse than that of the baseline condition. Consequently, the new type of the Think/No-Think paradigm could successfully lead to stable memory impairment effect.
For disabled people, driving a vehicle is a very important means of transportation to realize their independence of social participation. A better and safer driving environment will be created if public opinion is taken positively into account, in a similar way to stations and public areas. Concerning safe driving, a questionnaire was carried out regarding the problems caused by the physical situation for disabled people driving vehicles with driving auxiliary equipment and problems occurring when the vehicle runs on the road. The number of people who answered the questionnaire consisted of 102 disabled people and 115 physically unimpaired people. As a result, it was found that for disabled people there were some problems that disturb secure driving.
The present study examined the characteristics of self-esteem in eating disorders (EDs) and those effects on EDs's behavior. We hypothesized first that a negative evaluation of self body shape and facial attractiveness relates to the decline of self-esteem, second that such decline of self-esteem relates to overall life satisfaction in EDs. In Study 1, the hypotheses were examined with ten normal women. The results showed that high tendency participants of ED scores tend to show negative evaluation of their self body shape and also on their self-esteem, whereas low self-esteem participants tended to show less life satisfaction. In Study 2, four ED patients and 13 normal women were compared. The results of ED patients showed higher negative evaluation of self body shape and facial attractiveness and these related to lower self-esteem as well as lower overall life satisfaction. On the other hand, normal women showed a negative correlation that the higher negative evaluation of own facial attractiveness, the lower self-esteem is. However, this relation between self-esteem and overall life satisfaction was weak. Those results suggest that the characteristics of the self-esteem of ED patients possess an exaggerated importance on the evaluation of own physical attractiveness and it relates to dissatisfaction overall their life.
Currently, many newcomer students in Japan leave school after compulsory education and their lower advancement rate to high school is presumed compared to the United States'. This research aims to confirm the difference of Laotian children's access to high school between US/Japan and to examine possible resolutions for the resent problems on educational access and leaning assistance of newcomers in Japan. According to the US census (2000), 68% of Laotians obtained high school diplomas. Whereas in Japan-where no census by ethnic group is available-only 38% of Laotian children at Kanagawa, 11% at Hyogo has advanced to high school. So what factors affect these differences? Previous literatures summarized the factors as follows; "structure/system of the school", "family support/environment" and "economic factors." From these thee factors, this research focuses on the "structure/system of the school," First of all, taking a look at the hardware side of "structure/system of the school," Japanese newcomer students suffer in taking high school entrance examinations because they need to challenge the same test as Japanese students. This is similar to Japanese "institutional approach" of accepting refugees, treating them as groups and providing them with the same programs. In the US, on the other hand, open admission system is available which encourage newcomer students to advance to high school. Such system will be necessary for newcomers, in Japan, to stand in the entrance of the society. Second of all, taking a look at the software side of "structure/system of the school" focus only on Japanese language education and disregard cultural diversity could be pointed out as problems. On the other hand, teaching strategies in the US adapts individual needs of new comers based on the students needs such as hiring bilingual teachers, providing mother tongue education and assisting dropped out students. It shares same concept of "individual approach" which is US way of accepting refugees. In fact, current educational support system of newcomer students in Japan is changing and became diversified. As a future task, "structure/system of the school" should adapt to individual needs based on individual approach, so that it will connect to support newcomers' advancement to higher education and improve opportunities of their learning assistance.
Relations between cosmetic behavior and self-consciousness were examined with middle and upper-middle community dwellers. Four hundred ninety-eight healthy community dwellers participated in this survey as a part of cohort study and they were given self-consciousness inventories, cosmetic behavior inventory, and cognitive function examination in addition to heath examinations. In this study, we examined the following four hypotheses: first that the degree of both aspects of self-consciousness, public and private, is higher in females than in males in middle and upper-middle participants as similar to that of young generations, second that female participants whose self-consciousness score was high showed frequent cosmetic behavior, third that cosmetic behavior is highly shown in the situations where they kept others eye and fourth that skin-care behavior is shown more in the participants who show high private self-consciousness score due to relaxation and self-body touch factors that involved in skin-care behavior. The results confirmed first three hypotheses and fourth hypothesis was partially supported. These findings by middle and upper-middle community dwellers' behavior characteristics offer suggestions concerning the ways of nursing and rehabilitation care for aged peoples.
Tsuda Sokichi (1873-1961) is a Japanese historian and thinker, known as one of the leading intellectuals in modern Japanese society. He examined Japanese way of thinking in each different era and presented a new way of Japan's esprit which would fit in his own time. In this paper, I would like to discuss his interpretation of Japanese ancient thought. In the first half, I would review Tsuda's thought on Kojiki and Nohonshoki, in contrast to the thought of Siratori Kurakiti's and Inoue Tetsuziro's. In the latter half, comparing with Tsuda's research of Chinese ancient thought, I would like to analyze Ancient Japanese sense of beauty and view of nature, their thought and feelings, all of which are important elements for their interpersonal relationship.