This paper considers the impact of the quality of interpersonal relationships on psychological well-being of family caregivers for elderly persons. First, the paper reviewed the studies on the measures for care-giving burden and argued that the burden and depression of the caregivers were generally associated with the perception of negative family relationship. Second, the paper considered the importance of social support on the psychological well-being and argued that the good quality of interpersonal relationship contributed to psychological well-being of caregivers by increasing the opportunities to obtain social support. Third, the paper reviewed the studies that suggest the negative effect of intimate family relationship on psychological well-being of caregivers. These studies mostly argued that the intimate relationship increased the commitment to family caregiving and consequently, family caregivers were likely to hesitate to utilize various professional services for caregiving. Forth, the paper pointed out that social support may have negative impact on the recipients' psychological well-being, such as arousing guilt feeling and decreasing self-esteem. Finally, it was argued that research exploring the social cognition processes, particularly the inference of intentions and dispositions in caregiving situation were needed.
Absolute pitch [AP] is defined as the ability to identify or produce a musical pitch without external reference pitch. In recent studies, AP perception is supposed to require the associations between pitch categories and their labels. AP was usually measured by identification preciseness of semitone unit of 12 equal tempered musical scale, but there was no clear criterion about degree of preciseness in that lower limit of AP, because AP and non-AP distributed continually, then couldn't be classified clearly. While, some studies insisted that if semitone errors were accepted as correct response, AP and non-AP distributed into 2 groups. Also, AP possessors showed qualitative characteristics such as preciseness or preference for white key pitches, and phonetic encoding for white key pitches. These facts suggested that if allowable ranges of the pitches were expanded, AP and non-AP could be classified clearly. In this study, identification tasks of 12 semitone- and 7 white key pitches of the musical scale were tested and examined relationship between response rates of several extended pitch ranges and distribution patterns of subjects in each pitch ranges. As a result, in pitch category of a semitone condition, there was no clear dichotomy between AP and non-AP, although the condition which accepted 1 or 2 adjacent semitone range as correct response had clear dichotomy. Moreover, in the white key identification task, pitch range of white key had clear dichotomy, and this condition divided subjects into 2 groups most clearly in all conditions in this study. These results suggested that majority of AP possessors used categories of white key pitches as base units of absolute pitch to associate with labels.
Pipp, Shaver, Jennings, Lamborn, & Fischer (1985) studied the variations of parent and late adolescent relationships by a retrospective method; Circle Drawing. The first purpose of this study was to compare the results with those of the previous study (Pipp et al., 1985), though the ages of participants were different. Early and late adolescents and their mothers were asked to draw two circles, one representing the daughter and another representing the mother, at three or four periods from infancy to the present. The results showed that the size of the daughters' circles were becoming larger with age whereas the mothers' circles were becoming smaller. The distances between the circles were changed from infancy to the present, namely the distance at the infant period was smaller than at the present. These results showed that the transition for mother-daughter relationships had the same pattern as in the previous study (Pipp et al., 1985). The second purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between circle drawings and mother-daughter communications in two tasks. The communication tasks were to solve math questions and to cooperate in completing a craft project for which they had to plan the design and complete the finished project. Their utterances during two tasks were coded into fifteen categories based Condon, Cooper & Grotevant (1984). The results showed that some parts of the communications relate well with some aspects of the exercise with circles. That is, the results of this study showed that the mother-daughter relationships expressed by two circles were changing with age, and circle drawings express some parts of the actual communications, too.
Araki, Shimazaki, Imai, & Ito (2008) indicated that listening to preferred music for days gradually reduced the level of state anxiety. Hereinafter, this study is called the accumulated effect. To our knowledge, there is no paper replicated this accumulated effect. So, the first aim of the current study was to examine whether the accumulated effect could be replicated. Furthermore, as a second aim, this study explored whether the above accumulated effect could last for at least two day. In order to achieve the two aims, the procedure of this study consisted of such as follows. At first, all participants completed the state anxiety scale of Japanese Edition (Mizuguchi, Shimonaka, & Nakasato, 1999) of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spilberger, Gorsuch, & Lushene, 1970). After that, they were asked to listen to the preferred music or white noise. The preferred music was selected by the participant, while white noise was presented by the experimenter. After listening, all participants again completed the state anxiety scale. This session (STAI measurement-music listening-STAI measurement) was undergone once per day for three consecutive days. On day two after music listening on the 3rd day, they again completed state anxiety scale and answered the interview at follow-up to examine whether the accumulated effect could last. The results indicated that only in high anxiety individuals, listening to preferred music for three consecutive days gradually decreased state anxiety score by the day. Thus, the accumulated effect was replicated. Moreover, in high anxiety group, there was no difference between the state anxiety score on the 3rd day and that on day two after preferred music listening on the 3rd day. Consequently, the accumulated effect lasted afterward via preferred music listening for three consecutive days.
Subjective age of Japanese middle and upper middle community dwellers was surveyed in Study 1. Participants (N = 442) were asked to answer their subjective psychological and physical ages by the questionnaire. As seen in previous studies of North America and North Europe people, most of the Japanese participants evaluated their subjective and physical age significantly younger than their chronological age. There is a sex difference in the amount of discrepancy different from previous studies and this seems to suggest cultural effects on subjective age evaluation. In Study 2, the relation between cognitive task performances and type of subjective age evaluation was examined. Nagoya University Cognitive Assessment Battery (NU-CAB) was given to 362 middle and upper middle age participants and the results showed that attention related test items in the NU-CAB are critical to evaluate subjective age whether participants evaluated younger or older than chronological age.
Since 1928 a serious problem over the foreign interests in Manchuria emerged. This paper deals with the Britain's perception and diplomacy on Manchuria problem from 1928 to 1929. In 1928 Sino-Japanese relations have deteriorated over the Manchuria interests. Britain had kept a neutral stance and was dealing with this problem based on the principle open doors. Britain suspected the Japan's China policy as divide and rule policy. But on the other hand Britain appreciated the economical development in Manchuria brought by Japan. Then Britain called for a compromise to China nationalism and Japan over Manchuria interests. In 1929 a incident between China and Soviet broke out in North Manchuria over railroad interests. H. Stimson attempted to solve the incident based on Paris peace pact and A. Henderson tuning it. This attempt was the opportunity for building a collective security system in East Asia. But it had failed.
This study investigated the effect of situation model and textbase formation ability on expository text comprehension. The results showed that firstly situation model formation ability in low group impaired reading test score when cognitive loads were imposed on participants, and secondly textbase formation ability in low group impaired reading test score than in high group. These results suggest that it is important for expository text comprehension to form textbase. However, when cognitive loads are imposed, it is thought that situation model formation ability is also important for expository text comprehension.
The variations of self-consciousness and cosmetic behavior that accompanied with age were examined. One hundred thirty two female students participated as young group that ranged 17 to 19 years old. Two hundred five healthy community dwellers participated in this survey as a part of cohort study, 132 females who ranged from 39 to 64 years old were regarded as middle group and 73 females who ranged from 65 to 91 years old were regarded as upper-middle group. Public and private self-consciousness and three cosmetic behaviors in four situations of the three age groups were compared. The results indicated that the score of public self-consciousness was higher in young group than middle and upper-middle groups, and private self-consciousness was higher in young group than middle group. As for the cosmetic behaviors, the young group showed less make-up rates than middle and upper-middle groups in their home whereas they showed more skin-care behavior in the situation where they were conscious of being gazed at by the others. Therefore, it was considered that the variation of cosmetic behaviors that accompanied with age was not explained by self-consciousness but other factors.
Spontaneous smiles are the first smiles which infants show, and they occur during irregular sleep or drowsiness. In the 1960s, some researchers conducted observations on full-term and preterm neonates, and recorded spontaneous smiles. But little is known about the smiles, and recent research provides some new perspectives. Common opinion is that only humankind shows spontaneous smiles. However recent studies revealed that infant chimpanzees showed them. Many researchers believe that human infants show spontaneous smiles from immediately after their birth to two or three month of age, whereas one-year-old infants still show them (Kawakami et al., 2009). The purpose of this research was to provide fundamental data on spontaneous smiles in other species and humankind. This paper reports on two studies. Three newborn Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata) were observed in study 1. And in study 2, two human fetuses at 23 and 30 weeks of gestation were observed by using four-dimensional ultrasonography. The results showed that three newborn Japanese Macaques smiled spontaneously seven times during sleep, and both human fetuses showed spontaneous smiles. These data mean that humankind and chimpanzees are not the only species which show spontaneous smiles, but also newborn Japanese Macaques show them, and spontaneous smiles of humankind begins in the womb. This suggests that current theories of the development of emotional expression should be revised, and the data of this research provide new perspectives on this field of studies.