The purpose of the present study was to examine how photo-presentation could influence on the images toward foreign countries. Especially, we would like to know if it can reduce the prejudice toward those countries that had been related to emotionally negative images. Specifically, it was discussed how Japanese university students' images of negatively-imaged and positively-imaged countries (the former were North Korea and Iraq, and the latter were the United States of America and Australia which were showed by preliminary test) could be modified by providing photos that gave counter impressions, and whether the change of their impressions could last or not. The participants (n = 97) were divided into two groups altogether; a group of S (42 students) that was presented positive-image photos for negatively-imaged countries and negative-image photos for positively-imaged countries, and the other group of D (55 students) that was showed both of positive-and negative-image photos of the four countries. From the results, it was indicated that S participants changed their images of the four countries; on the other hand, it was not recognized that D participants greatly changed their images. Furthermore, according to the delayed test conducted two months later, it was pointed that the modification as to North Korea and Iraq has been partially maintained in S participants. From these findings, it can be considered that photos that counter stereotypic images of foreign countries can reduce the fixed images that university students have. In addition, it was indicated that S participants with conservative thoughts modified their stereotypic images toward North Korea and Iraq more. Hence, photo-presentation is considered an effective method to reduce prejudice toward negatively-imaged countries of conservative university students.
Psychological meanings of the circle frame and spatial location in the Doll Location Test (DLT) were discussed by the placement of symbol figures. Eight psychoneuroses cases showed representations of symbol figures outside of the printed circle frame in the DLT test sheet. Results showed a consistent tendency that negatively recognized non-familial members were placed in the right upper space while negatively recognized familial members were placed in the left lower space. In the cases of representation that consisted of familial member only, the circle frame had a meaning to classify negative from positive psychological recognition whereas the circle frame was used to classify between familial and non-familial members in the cases of representation that consisted of family members and business related members. These mean that psychological meaning of the frame by the printed circle line is not static but dynamic plasticity and meaning of spatial location of the negative person depend on the clinical case characteristics.
Sebanz et al. (2003, "Representing others' action: Just like one's own?" Cognition, 88, B11-B21) demonstrated that a response selection conflict between two action alternatives (a right and a left button press) that is known to occur within individuals is also observed across individuals in a social setting. A pair of participants in their study responded to pictures of a colored ring presented on an index finger pointing left or right. Each of the pair assigned each color that they had to respond. Their results showed that participants respond more slowly when the finger pointed at their partners than when it pointed at the participants. This phenomenon refers to "social Simon effect". The present study investigated whether the social Simon effect is observed using a colored arrow, instead of a finger pointing. Our results did not show a social Simon effect. However, we provided the evidence that when the partner is in charge of the response in the previous trial, the social Simon effect appeared , whereas it was not observed when the participant is in charge of the response in the previous trial. These results suggested the possibility that although non-social pointing stimulus like an arrow does not lead to the robust activation of partner's task representation, it may be activated depending the previous trials.
Relation between cognitive ability and usual food preference among elderly people (mean 62.6 years old, N = 608) was examined. Participants were asked to fill the questionnaires that addressed to everyday food preference habit. Cognitive items examined were attention (Stroop test, D-CAT), memory, verbal fluency, and spatial (money road test) that were selected from NU-CAB (Nagoya university cognitive assessment battery). Food preferences were classified into three groups (A: none or 1-2 times per month; B: 1-2 times per week; and C: 3-4 times per week or everyday) for food (green-leafy vegetable, yellow-green vegetables, root vegetables, fungi, meat, fishes, and dairy, egg, etc). Results were shown first that A group were inferior memory related item (MMSE and logical memory performances) than B and C groups and mean age of A group was significantly younger than the other groups. These findings suggest a relation between usual food preference and cognitive function and a contribution of cohort effect.
When we read someone's facial expressions, which part of the face is more important, the upper or the lower part? Are there any difference between the relative important facial parts (upper vs. lower) and whole face in emotional ratings of facial expressions? The stimulus materials were composed facial expressions of six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral expression, created by combining the upper parts (including eye, eyebrow, and forehead) and the lower parts (including nose, mouth, and cheek) of pictures. Specifically, the upper half was one expression and the lower half was neutral (e.g., anger-neutral) or same (e.g., anger-anger). Or the lower half was one expression and the upper half was neutral (e.g., neutral-anger). The participants were shown the facial stimulus and asked to rate each of these for the intensity of the six emotions. The results indicated that the upper areas of the face were more strongly associated with anger, surprise, and sadness, whereas the lower areas were more important in recognizing fear and happiness. Moreover, in recognizing facial expressions, the rating for the relative important facial upper parts was not significantly different from that of the rating for the complete face. Further inspection of expression confusion revealed that "anger" and "fear" were consistently confused with "disgust" and "surprise," respectively.
This study aims to investigate the word associations of the students who are specializing in information technology (IT) in order to know some educational implications for teaching them English. The participants were 151 IT students and 186 other major students. Our results showed that IT students produced more IT related responses to IT relevant stimulus words than those who were not specializing in IT. It was indicated that there was a possibility that the IT students lacked basic English vocabulary although their knowledge concerning IT was abundant. It was suggested that they need to learn more frequently used English words that might be semantically connected to already-acquired IT words if they are to improve their general English abilities.
This study examined the effects of anterior temporal lobectomy on semantic network. 22 patients who underwent left (LATL, n = 11) or right (RATL, n = 11) anterior temporal lobectomy were administered test of verbal fluency test, preoperatively and 3 weeks, 1 year postoperatively. The semantic network was derived by multidimensional scaling analysis based on data from the animal category fluency test. In the preoperative period LATL group showed the breakdown of semantic network, but the semantic network was conceptually organized in the postoperative period. The results indicated the reduction of seizure frequency improved the semantic network of LATL. On the other hand, RATL group showed persistent breakdown of semantic network after surgery. This suggested that the right anterior temporal lobe might be involved in semantic network.
It is known well that in the early Showa period there were contentions between two factions of army officers; the Imperial Way Faction (Kohdoh-ha) and the Control Faction (Tohsei-ha). Nagata Tetsuzan was a leading figure of the Control Faction and Mazaki Jinzaburo, the other. Nagata sent letters to Mazaki. This paper introduces five of them in Mazaki Collection owned by Modern Japanese Political History Materials Room in National Diet Library.
The relationship between lifestyle activities and higher brain functions in normal middle-aged and elderly people was examined. Participants were 1086 community dwellers in a rural town (their age ranged from 40 to 91 years old). The higher brain functions were measured by means of MMSE, logical memory test, Stroop test, D-CAT (test for the assessment of attention or executive function) and verbal fluency test. The results of higher brain functions suggested that normal middle-aged and elderly people with high lifestyle activitiesperformed cognitive tasks better than normal middle-aged and elderly people with low lifestyle activities. On the other hand, high frequency of communication with families or friends related to cognitive decline, especially memory loss. Based on these findings, the relationship between lifestyle activities and cognitive reserve and between self-efficacy and cognitive decline were discussed.
Hamaguchi Osachi (1870-1931) is known among other things for his role as the 27th prime minister in the early Showa Era to lead the Minseito (his ruling party) Cabinet. It has been said that he carried out both domestic and foreign policies the most in the prewar party politics. Inoue Junnosuke (1869-1932) served as the minister of finance under the Hamaguchi Cabinet and carried out so called "Inoue financial measures" by practicing a belt tightening fiscal-monetary policy, and by announcing the lifting of an embargo on the export of gold. This paper introduces four letters sent from Prime Minister Hamaguchi to Inoue, the cabinet minister of finance. The four letters are in Inoue Junnosuke Collection owned by Libraries of Graduate Schools for Law and Politics/Faculty of Law Center for Modern Japanese Legal and Political Documents in University of Tokyo.