SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 1
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages Cover1-
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages Cover2-
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Takeshige Santa
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 1-35,158-157
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The object of this article is to reexamine the theory of the Kunijitoshiki (国地頭職) in order to study the formation of the Shugo and Jito system within the Kamakura government. Since the discovery of the kunijitoshiki, the vast majority of previous studies have recognized its existence, that is to say, it has been an established theory that the content of the petition to the court in November in 1185, which was made by Hojo Tokimasa (北条時政), a messenger dispatched by Minamoto no Yoritomo (源頼朝), was the original kunijitoshiki. However, in this article the author attempts to examine the existence of the kunijitoshiki in itself, in the light of the confusibn of previous studies, especially on the relationship between the kunijitoshiki and sotsuibushi (惣追捕使). First, the author confirms the content of the petition. It is aimed principally at establishing sotsuibushi in the western provinces to track down Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源義経) and other outlaws. Furthermore, the following two rights petitioned for at the same time, the right to collect provision rice, and the right to dispose of mokkanryo (没官領) were based in the Sotsuibushi. Secondly, the author analyzes the content of the negotiations, between the court and Tokimasa in March in 1186. The analysis shows that the shichikakokujitoshiki (七カ国地頭職), which is regarded as the only concrete evidence for the existence of the kunijitoshiki, was a general name of the shogojitoshiki (荘郷地頭職) established in seven provinces. Thirdly, the author examines the kyukokujito (九国地頭), the shikokujito (四国地頭), and the Kamakuradonokannoshi (鎌倉殿勧農使), which are regarded as the direct predecessors of the kunijitoshiki, but were different from the kunijitoshiki in kind. On the basis of these examinations, the author denies the existence of a kunijitoshiki within the kamakura government. Therefore, it is not necessary to take account of the kunijitoshiki when studying the formation of the shugo and jito system of that Government.
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  • Junko Miyawaki
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 36-73,157-156
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The Mongol Empire, which was built by Chinggis Khan through his unification of the nomadic peoples of Central Eurasia in the early thirteenth century, in the same way as the great nomadic empires that preceded it, split up into four major states due to internal conflicts among its rulers in the latter half of the same century. Its successor states also either fell or split up further during the middle of the following century. A difference of major importance, however, between the Mongol Empire and its predecessors was that the Central Eurasian nomads never forgot the glorious name of Chinggis Khan even after the split and the fall of its successor states. In the later nomadic society people's minds were long conditioned by the unwritten law that only those having Chinggis Khan's blood in their veins were entitled to khanship. The Oyirad, a group of people who held sway over Mongolia for some time after the fall of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China, are known to Westerners as the Kalmyks or the Western Mongols. They were called 'aliens (qari)' by the Mongols proper, or the descendants of the Yuan loyalists who reunited in the late fifteenth century. No male descendant of Chinggis Khan was to be found among chiefs of the groups making up the Oyirad. Still they produced such famous chiefs as Guusi Khan and Galdan Bosoqtu Khan in the seventeenth century. When and through what process was khanship born in the Oyirad? Who was it that legitimized such a title? Early in the seventeenth century, the Oyirad tribes succeeded in destroying a Mongol khan who had been their overlord and freed themselves from their former tributary obligations to the Mongols. Now they wished to have their own khan and obtained permission to do so from the Fifth Dalai Lama, the supreme leader of the Dge lugs pa Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, a faith which they had zealously embraced. Yet, even the Oyirad had not lost their traditional respect for Chinggis Khan, which enabled only Guusi Khan of the Xosud tribe and his descendants to assume the title of khan, since they supposedly could date their ancestry back to Josi Qasar, a younger brother of Chinggis Khan. Among the sovereigns of the so-called Zun Γar 'Empire' that grew powerful in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to become the last of equestrian nomadic empires in Central Asian histofy, only Galdan, whose mother was a daughter of Guusi Khan of the Xosud, was granted khanship by the Dalai Lama. All others held only the title of xong tayizi, which meant a viceroy under a khan among the Mongols. Thus there never was a 'Zun Γar Khanate'.
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  • Hideyuki Arimitsu
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 74-99,156-155
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    J.Le Patourel and C.W.Hollister have pointed out and emphasized that England and Normandy after 1066 existed as a unit, especially for the royal/ducal family, prelates and magnates. In this paper the author tries to make clear how Orderic Vitalis and William of Malmesbury, the chief chroniclers of that period, perceived England and Normandy. First, the auther investigates whether in fact they perceived England and Normandy as one, by checking objects indicated by the words "regnum", "ducatus ", "honor", "imperium", "patria", "fegio", and "terra"-the words which are able to represent a territory. It is certain that cases do exist in which England and Normandy was implied in the singular of these words. But they are rare and mostly seen in the reports from the point of view of the kings. It is hard to say that they were the spontaneous remarks of the chroniclers themselves. Secondly, the author examines the words "Anglus" and "Normannus". These words were used in terms of nationality, that is to say, the former meant an Anglo-Saxon, and the latter a Norman. As time passes from the Norman Conquest, however, it is observed that prelates, magnates and knights, of course not AngloSaxons by blood, came into the category of "Anglus ". In this shift, we can recognize the strength of the division of England and Normandy in their minds. Further, the author examines the objects indicated by the words which have to do with "we" (ex."noster", "nostrates"), "in/out" (ex."indigena", "exter", "advena"). There were cases in which "Anglus" and "Normannus" were divided by "in/out" words. On the other hand, the "we" terms never meant "Anglus" and "Normannus" together at the same time. In the image of England and Normandy, seen through the eyes of Orderic and William-they were both of the mixed Anglo-Saxon and Norman (or French) blood-, we see the strong liveliness of the idea of the land which Englhnd-or Normandy-has.
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  • Hideaki Miyajima
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 100-106
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Tadami Chizuka
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 106-117
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 118-119
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 120-121
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (261K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 121-122
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 122-123
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (274K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 123-124
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (272K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 124-126
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (351K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 126-127
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (234K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 127-128
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (247K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 128-129
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 129-130
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (239K)
  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 131-154
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (1691K)
  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages 155-158
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages App1-
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages Cover3-
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 1 Pages Cover4-
    Published: January 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
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