SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 10
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Taku Shinohara
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1673-1712,1830-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Die Revolution von 1848 wurde in Bohmen oft als ungenutzte Chance betrachtet: als Moglichkeit einer burgerlichen Revolution verbunden mit einer moglichen Befreiung der "tschechischen Nation". Die Probleme der Landbevolkerung in der Revolution, die ohnehin zu den wichtigsten Bestandteilen ihrer Problematik gehoren, wurden auch vorwiegend von diesen Gesichtspunkten, "von auBen", aus erwogen. Der Autor unternimmt, die Petitionen der Landbewohner an den NationalausschuB zu untersuchen und damit die Probleme der Landbevolkerung in der Revolution entsprechend ihrer eigenen Struktur und den Streit um Macht und Sinn der Revolution in der Lebenswelt der Landbevolkerung zu analysieren. Die Landbevolkerung in Bohmen unterstellte sich im Vormarz rechtlich und administrativ der obrigkeitlichen Herrschaft. Die Gemeinde (obec) vertritt gegeniiber den Dorfbewohnern einerseits die staatliche sowie die obrigkeitliche Macht, andereseits ist sie eine Selbstverwaltungsorganisation der Dorfbewohner. Man kann grob zwei Kategorien der Dorfbewohner unterscheiden. Die erste Kategorie bestand aus "Bauern" (sedlaci), die ihr eigenes Wirtschaftsland und das Recht hatten, an der Gemeindeverwaltung teilzunehmen und den Gemeindevorstand zu stellen. Zu anderen Kategorie gehorten Hausler (domkari) und Inleute (podruzi), die ihren Lebensunterhalt grundsatzlich durch Pacht, landwirtschaftlichen bzw. handwerklichen Tagelohn oder durch Gesindearbeit bei der Obrigkeit und bei Bauern verdienten und somit die arme Schicht der Landbevolkerung bildeten. Die zweite Gruppe war aus der Gemeindeverwaltung ganzlich ausgeschlossen. Die Armen lieferten der Gemeinde unter der Fuhrung der Bauern ihre Abgaben ab, als Gegenleistung erhielten sie dadurch das Benutzungsrecht an den Gemeindevermogen. Die Gemeinde rechtfertigte mit solcher Gegenseitigkeit und Gemeinschaftlichkeit, die den Armen den Lebensunterhalt ermoglichten, die ausschlieBliche Gemeindeselbstverwaltung der Bauern. Aber im Vormarz wirkten sich die Erweiterung der unternehmerischer Landwirtschaftsproduktion und die erhebliche Bevolkerungszunahme auf dem Land bedruckend aus: Grund und Boden wurden immer knapper und der Anteil der Armen in jeder Gemeinde stieg. In diesen labilen Zustand befand sich Bohmen beim Ausbruch der Revolution 1848. Bezog sich der erste Aspekt der problematik auf dem Land auf das Verhaltnis zwischen Obrigkeit und Landbevolkerung im ganzen, so weitete sich der Konflikt zu einem Streit zwischen den Bauern und der Armenschicht innerhalb einer Gemeinde aus. Beklagt werden in den Petitionen der Armen die Armut, verursacht durch Landmangel, die Erweiterung der bauerlichen Bewirtschaftung durch Pacht des Obrigkeits-, Kirchen-, sowie Gemeindegrunds, das Monopol der Bauern auf den Gemeindegrund oder die Ungleichheit im Nutzungsrecht, die "unberechtigte" Anwendung des Gemeindevermogens der Bauern und nicht zuletzt ihre Abgaben und Pflichten an die Gemeinde. Trotz der Auflosung der Gemeinschaftlichkeit blieben die Sitten der traditionellen Gemeindeordnung, die die bauerliche Selbstverwaltung unterstutzten und die Armen zu Abgaben zwangen. Innerhalb des feudalen Systems beschafften sich die Bauern die fur die Betriebserweiterung notigen Mittel an Kapital und Arbeitskraften durch die Gemeindeorganisation. Von den Bauern, die aus der traditionellen Gemeinschaftlichkeit auszutreten begannen, verlangten die Armen, die das standige Grundnutzungsrecht und damit die Ruckkehr zum kleinen Pachtbetrieb forderten, die Wiederherstellung des Gemeinwesens. Dieser Widerspruch des Ubergangsprozesses spiegelte sich in der Revolution von 1848 wieder. Der Einklang eines kleinen Teils der Bauern mit der Revolution zeigt ihren Hegemoniebildungsversuch in der erschutterten landlichen Gesellschaft. Einige politische Forderungen und nationalistische Bekenntnisse in den bauerlichen Petitionen bedeuten gar nicht, daB sie die Programme der

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  • Kunio Hayashi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1713-1733,1828
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Many contributions have been made to the study of the Mesta (the guild of sheep farmers who practiced transhumance in Castile) since the book by Julius Klein was published in 1920. But many problems about the medieval Mesta and transhumance in the pre-Mesta period remain unsolved. One of these problems is the date of the Mesta's establishment. This paper divides the various views expressed about this problem into ten categories. After examing each view closely, the author supports the pre-1273 view. However, this view needs to be defined more precisely. Prof. Bishko has said that the Mesta was established after 1230 when the northern sheep farmers had begun the autumnal transhumant drives into the Guadiana River Basin, to cooperate in dealing with the problem of pasturage. But this problem rose as soon as transhumance began, so if this were the reason for the establishment of the Mesta, it should have been established earlier. Furthermore, this problem could have been resolved by each sheep farmer negotiating with each land owner separately. This paper places the establishment of the Mesta after 1269, when the Cortes was held in Burgos approving the levy of servicio. Servicio was a tax the King imposed on all transhumant sheep farmers. It thus seems probable that some of them hit upon the idea to establish the Mesta to obtain royal protection in exchange for paying the serivicio tax.
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  • Kazutoshi Tomizen
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1734-1762,1827-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    This article examines Konoma village in the feudal territory of Shinano Province and its eight satellite hamlets from the viewpoint of differences between villages and developing inter-village relations in the Japan's Tokugawa period. Based on its ties to the eight satellite hamlets, which sprouted up on reclaimed territory within Konoma's landholding (jiwake 地分), in the middle of the 18th century Konoma brought the satellites under its political control as eda-mura 枝村 (branch hamlets) by shifting to them the burden of various labor-related services levied by the state and the local feudal lord. In response to the autonomous movement by one of the branch hamlets. Tochinoki, which resulted in its gaining official "village" (mura) status in 1775. Konoma attempted to strengthen its control over the other branch hamlets under the leadership of large scale land-holders (omae-byakusho 大前百姓) who had been prospering throughout the decade of the 1770s. The contradictions existing between both sides came to a head in the "Eda-go Incident" of 1824, which resulted in Konoma's abandonment of its plan to get official recognition concerning its authority over the branch hamlets. In addition, concerning Konoma's jiwake, which formed the basis of its claim to control of the satellite hamlets, a dispute rose up with neighboring villages over the disposal of fallen and murdered corpses, resulting in the area being designated as common use land (iriai-chi 入会地). During the end of the 19th century, first Tochinoki village was able to get official recognition for its own jiwake after a dispute with Konoma over an access road. The other seven satellites, while maintaining coalition relations with Konoma. formed a kumiai 組合, by which they shared common interests and geographical equality. In conclusion, the author puts together a theory by which inter-village relations functioned and changed during the middle of the Tokugawa period. From political subordination by Konoma village to the formation of a cooperative organization (kumiai), we can in formalistic terms see an egalitarian process taking place. On the other hand, we can also see a movement towards autonomy through the assumption of labor-related dues by each individual village, but do not observe any attempts to legitimize their existence based on such tax payments. Then there is the villages' original ideological position as branches to Konoma in a stratified structure that continued unchanged throughout the period in question, suggesting a continuing instability in inter-village relations.
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  • Chuji Sakamoto
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1763-1770
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Minoru Omameuda
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1771-1778
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Aiko Kurasawa
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1779-1784
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1784-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1784-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (56K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1785-1787
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1788-1789
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1789-1790
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (262K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1790-1791
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1791-1793
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1793-1794
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (271K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1794-1795
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (256K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1795-1796
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1796-1797
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (255K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1797-1798
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (257K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1798-1799
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (249K)
  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1800-1825
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1826-1830
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages 1826-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages App1-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages Cover3-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 10 Pages Cover4-
    Published: October 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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