SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 11
Showing 1-25 articles out of 25 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kiyoharu Osumi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1831-1832,2004-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Under the Ritsuryo 律令 regime of Japan, the Benkan 弁官 formed a part of the Daijokan 太政官 system. It was an independent department of the Daijokan, and had original offices named the Benkan-cho 弁官庁 and the Benkan-soshi 弁官曹司. The Daijokan in a narrow sense was composed of only the Kugyo 公卿, the Shonagon 少納言 and the Geki 外記 and did not include the Benkan. The function of the Benkan was controlling central and local government offices organized under the Daijokan system, such as Hassho 八省 and Kokushi 国司. These offices informed the Benkan of state affairs by making oral reports as well as documentary ones. The Benkan also orally inquired of the officials about state affairs, and gave them proper instructions. In this way, the Benkan could completely control any government office. But this means that the Daijokan system of Japan was an undeveloped bureaucracy in contrast with the government system of the Tang dynasty In the Tang, every government office divided its affairs between the officials, the chief chang-guan 長官, the vice chief tong-pan-guan 通判官 and the pan-guan 判官. The directions of these officials were recorded in the documents, and the inspector jian-gou-guan 検勾官 of every office supervised their management and took delivery of documents sent by other offices. In Japan, however, there was no such system; only the Benkan controlled and supervised the management of every office as thoroughly as possible. This is the reason why the Benkan was a department separated from the Daijokan in a narrow sense, a cabinet formulating policies. In the ninth century, as the government offices established by the Ritsuryo code declined in their function and new administrative organs came into existence in the Imperial Palace Dairi 内裏, the Benkan also changed in substance. In the begining of the ninth century, the Daijokan in a narrow sense began to perform its duty in the Dairi, not in its original offices, but the Benkan continued to use its own offices. During this century, the Ritsuryo government offices further declined, so the Benkan lost its ability to control them. In the end of the century, the Benkan only sorted out the documents presented by many offices in the Katanashi-dokoro 結政所, the new office of the Benkan located on the east side of the Dairi. At the almost same time, the new administrative organs Tokoro 所 were established in the Dairi, and some Ritsuryo government offices; which had close relations with the Dairi, were reorganized under the Dairi's direct control. Later, the Benkan was appointed chief of the Tokoro and the government offices with the Kugyo and Tenjobito 殿上人, and was called Betto 別当. The establishment of the Katanashi-dokoro means that the Benkan also began to perform its duty in the Dairi. Moreover, the Benkan formed the original format of command, Benkan-ni-kudasu-senji 下弁官宣旨, imitating the Geki-ni-kudasu-senji 下外記宣旨, the way by which the Daijokan in a narrow sense had given the offices commands in the Dairi since the begining of the ninth century. In this way the Benkan's independence from the Daijokan in a narrow sense was diminished. On the contrary, the Benkan became the secretary directly responsible to the Daijokan, carrying out various affairs under the command of the Shokei 上卿, the person in charge of daily affairs in the Daijokan. This is the original form of the Benkan during the Sekkan 摂関 period, that was born at the end of the ninth century. The history of the Benkan under the Ritsuryo regime shows us how the Daijokan system changed and was reorganized.
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  • Tsuyoshi Kojima
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1873-1906,2002-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Investigating the manner in which state sacrifices were carried out in local yamens is one way to explain how China's cultural and political unity was maintained for such a long time. This paper, taking the scholar-official Zhen Dexiu of the Song period as an example, examines how officials interracted with the gods of the area in which they were posted. This paper is based on prayers written by Zhen Dexiu. Generally speaking, local officials performed prayers to the gods when they assumed or left a given post, each year at the seasonal spring and autumn festivals, when the people's livelihood was threatened by a poor crop due to bad weather, and other similar occasions. Zhen performed various prayers in response to events such as these, not only to orthodox gods listed in the register of sacrifices (sidian), but also to Daoist and Buddhist gods and saints, and new gods popular among the people. It seems that Zhen himself, as a Neo-Confucianist, preferred the orthodox gods. Still, he recognized the political efficacy of praying to the gods actually worshipped by the people as an indispensable means of winning their hearts. Zhen, however, did not pray to the gods as imagined and worshipped by the people, but attempted to reform them in a manner suitable with the ideology of Neo-Confucianism. Accordingly, though the gods Zhen prayed to and those the people prayed to were the same gods, their characters were somewhat different. The Ming rulers adapted Zhen's thought and inserted popular beliefs into the system of state sacritices. However, as his reputation as a Neo-Confucianist became established, a temple where Zhen had prayed for rain would become famous precisely on account of the fact that he had prayed there, with the result that later officials could not afford to take that temple lightly. In this manner the state sacrifices and popular belief, through the mediation of the local officials, had a mutual effect on each other.
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  • Satoshi Inukai
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1907-1925,2001-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Insei 院政 politics, domnation by the retired emperor In 院 was actually established during the latter part of Shirakawa-In 白河院 retirement after Emperor Toba 鳥羽天皇, grandson of Shirakawa, ascended to the throne in 1107. After that, benkan and shikiji 弁官・職事, the imperial secretaries, began reporting to the In, and imperial decrees (senji 宣旨) began to be promulugated according to the emperor's (tenno 天皇) will, but by the In's direction. When Fujiwara-no-Tsunefusa 藤原経房, whose diary is called the Kitsuki (吉記) was benkan, he went to Goshirakawa-In's chancellery (Goshirakawa-In-no-cho 後白河院庁) almost everday. But in the entry of the Kitsuki dated 1183/7/9 (寿永二年七月九日), we are told that the special court of justice called Inchusata was held at Goshirakawa-In-no-cho, and that all the judges of the Inchusata except himself and Minamoto-no-Masayori 源雅頼, who also sevred as benkan, were Goshirakawa's private advisers. Tsunefusa felt highly honored in being called to this Inchusata. Same of the cases appearing before this Inshusata were cases pending in the regular court handled by benkan and shikiji. From these facts, the author concludes that Inshusata was operated by the In's private advisers apart from the regular court and that the origin of Inchusata was the custom of petitions filed through the In's private advisers were permitted to be reviewed by the In without trial. Then why were non-political officials like Tsunefusa called to this Inchusata on 9/7/1183? About that time, the rebel army under Minamoto-no-Yoshinaka 源義仲 was approaching the capital. In June, Goshirakawa-In consurted with various aristocrats about counter-measures against the enemy. Fujiwara-no-Kanezane 藤原兼実, the Udaijin 右大臣, the third highest seat of the imperial cabinet, and not on intimate terms with Goshirakawa-In proposed a political reform called Tokusei 徳政. He emphasized that fair judgement in political affairs would make temples, shrines and others entities confide in the government. The author concludes that Goshirakawa-In assented to Kanezane's proposal and invited non-political officials to the Inchusata on 9/7/1183. Kanezane's idea was derived from Shinzei's 信西 reform, which was executed from 1156 to 1159 and exerted influence on political reform in Kamakura 鎌倉 period.
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  • Hiroshi Imai
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1926-1932
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Toru Koizumi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1932-1940
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kazuhiko Kondo
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1940-1948
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Yasushi Aoki
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1948-1955
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1956-1957
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (219K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1957-1958
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1958-1959
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (256K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1959-1960
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1960-1961
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (271K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1961-1962
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (261K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1962-1963
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1963-1964
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1964-1965
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1965-1967
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1967-1968
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 1969-1999
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages 2000-2004
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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