SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 8
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Namio Itoh
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1355-1395,1505-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In the naval system in classical Athens, trierarchs used in principle state hulls and sea-going equipment. In prescription, when their services were over, users had to return them in good condition. Those did not do so were recorded in naval documents as a debtor to the State. The object of this treatise is to make clear the actual situation of debts and their collection, and to consider the historical background. In order to attain this aim, naval inscriptions (IGII^2 1604-1632) have been mainly examined. They record details of the administration of the Athenian navy over about 55 years from the 370s to the 320s B.C.. This examination suggests important points in regard to the controlling power of the State over its wealthy citizens and their social power. From an examination of the inscriptions, the following points can be infered. (1)Debts tended to reach long terms, and each debtor was inclined to have plural and long-term debts. This confirms a view generaly pointed out by many scholars; which shows both a tendency to delay repayment of debts and. inactivity of collection in the navy. (2)However, except for the concentrated collection of debts in the first half of 350s., collection seems to have become active at latest after the middle of 340s B.C., this can be thought to have been greatly influenced by external circumstances: formed the preparations at war against Macedon in the second half of 340s, and security of sea trade routes after the battle of Chaeronea, above all measures for corn supply in the face of food crises. (3)The sum of collected money at times reached more than 10 talents. With 10 talents one could supply 26-27 sets of sea-going equipment. Therefore, collections were of considerable importance for consolidating the navy as a facfor to make sea trade active. (4)It is not necessarily clear whether the intensification of collecting debts had a direct relation to the policies of Eubulus and Lykurgus. But at least there is a possibility that their policies had some influence on it. The author concludes from the above that the character of administration of the Athenian navy in the first half of the fourth century B.C. differs significantly from that of the second. And in its background there seems to have been urgent and difficult circumstances : Social War and relations with Macedon and food crises etc.. Only in the face of such situations was debt collection intensified. It also gives an interesting clue to considering the power of the wealthy citizens in those days.
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  • Kesao Ihara
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1396-1419,1503-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In the present paper the author investigates the relationships between the tenno 天皇 (monarch), the Fujiwara regency and the in 院 (abdicated monarch), in an attempt to clarify the structure of the political decision making mechanism during Japan's medieval aristocratic state period. Recent research on medieval aristocratic politics has tended to refute the conceptualization of aristocrat house government (mandokoro 政所) and the office of the abdicated monarch (in-no-cho 院庁) at political focuses, in favor once again of the such councilor bodies as the jin-no-sadame 陣定 and Dajokan 太政官. According to this predominate opinion, the political power of the tenno waned during the eras of the Fujiwara regency and in governance, as the latter two institutions grabbed real power. However, despite this prevailing image of the period, such scholars as Tsuchida Naoshige and Yoshie Akio (in the same vein as Tsuji Zennosuke and Ryu Kiyoshi before them) have argued that the tenno's power was actually expanded within coalitions first with the regency and later with both the regency and the in. It is from this point of view that the author of the present article has made his investigation of the actual workings of state governance during the early medieval period in Japan. His findings are as follows. First, within the transition process from the ancient ritsuryo 律令 state to the aristocratic state (a process that lasted from the nineth to the twelfth centuries), a new system of noble ranks was set up called shinka no reiho 臣下之礼法, and new forms of royal decorum (tenno saho 天皇作法) came into being, which established the status and role of the monarch as customary law. Secondly, the supreme decision making mechanism within the aristocratic state was a collegial system involving the tenno, regent and the in and mediated by the Dajoan clerical affairs minister, the Shikiji Benkan 職事弁官. This decision making triad handled its affairs through the kurododokoro 蔵人所 (palace affairs office) and the Benkan-Kyoku 弁官局 (Dajokan clerical affairs office) and thus controlled the whole bureaucratic chain of command through the mediation of the Shikiji Benkan. This, as a result, neutralized the bolitical power and influence of such aristocratic institutions as the jin-no-sadame and shokei 上卿, the presiding officer over daily government affairs. For this reason the period in question may be said to have been characterized by "Shikiji Benkan politics" under the political coalition of the tenno, regency and the in. Finally, "Shikiji Benkan politics," which was established during the regency of Ichijo Tenno's reign, was later incorporated into the system of governance by the abdicated monarch. This is why such high level diplomatics as mikyosho 御教書 signed by the regent and inzen 院宣 signed by the abdicated monarch (both being promulgated through the Shikiji Benkan) came to function as royal edicts. It was in this way of issuing important government decisions that the system of political rule by the regency and the in through the Shikiji Benkan was formally established. The characteristic feature of this system was flexibility which allowed for authority in governance affairs to shift easily and smoothly between the offices of the tenno, regent, and in in response to the extremely fluid political situation of the time.
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  • Fumihiko Yamamoto
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1419-1441,1503
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Die Reichsexekutionsordnung von 1555 ist als Endpunkt der verfassungsgeschichtlichen Entwicklung auf dem Gebiet der Friedenssicherung im Reich anzusehen. Sie ubertrug den Reichskreisen endgultig und abschlieBend die Aufgabe der Sicherung und Wahrung des Landfriedens. In dieser Arbeit behandelte ich die Tatigkeiten solcher Reichskreise im spaten 16. Jahrhundert - bei den Grumbachschen Handeln (1560er Jahre), den Soldnerunruhen (1570er Jahre) sowie den Turkengefahren (1590er Jahre) - und dazu betrachtete ich ihre Rolle im DreiBigjahrigen Krieg und im Westfalischen Frieden. Die Reichskreise beschahtigten sich aktiv mit diesen Problemen und erhielten damit seit 1555 einen bedeutenden Stellenwert in der Verfassung des Alten Reiches. So wurden die Reichskreise zum Exekutivorgan des Reiches. Zugleich erhielten sie einen "Doppelcharakter" als "Standebunde" und "Reichsverwaltungsbezirke". Damit botengerade die Reichskreise den Reichsstanden die Moglichkeit, an den Belangen des Reiches mitzuwirken. Die Reichskfeise stellten wichtige Einrichtungen des Alten Reiches dar.
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  • Satoru Fujita
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1442-1450
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Masahiro Hirano
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1450-1459
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1460-1462
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1463-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1464-1465
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1465-1466
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1466-1467
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1467-1470
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1470-1471
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1472-1502
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages 1503-1506
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
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