SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 100 , Issue 9
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Hideo Yamaguchi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1507-1545,1672-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    The evaluation of a historical character of the local administrative mechanism of the 10th century, which was composed of kuni 国 (a province) and gun 郡 (a district), is an important problem for understanding the flow of the history of Japan from ancient times to the middle ages. It was formerly understood that management of gun by kuni was reinforced in the 10th century. However, strong doubts have arisen on this point in recent years. In this paper, the author attempts a new, overall evaluation concerning the local administrative mechanism of the 10th century and comes to the conclusion that the conventional opinion is merely a one-sided understanding of the events of the 10th century. The local administration under the Ritsuryo 律令 system was carried out by hokushi 国司, who were appointed from the central aristocracy, and by gunji 郡司, who were local powerful clans under the kokushi. In the latter part of the 9th century, however, the overseers of kokushi, called zuryo 受領, came to personally take administrative responsibility of kuni. As a result, zuryo began to delegate administration not to subordinate kokushi but to local influential persons, including gunji and migrant aristocrats. They were able to obtain both economic and political benefits by taking advantage of their duties. This form of administration was formally approved by a law issued in 902 A.D. Influential local persons called zoshikinin 雑色人 engaged in the administration of kuni, functioning as kuni-no-tsukai 国使, hogandai 判官代 or as constituents of tokoro 所, and were authorized to take charge of the administration of gun as gunji without official titles stipulated in the Ryo 令 codes, This assumption of the general duties of local administration by influential persons in the region was the biggest change in the local administrative mechanism of the 10th century. In accordance with these changes, the role of gunji, instead of the role of kokushi, became more important in some areas of local administration. Moreover, because people who had the same social attribute as zoshikinin conducted both of the duties of kuni and gun, the administrative unity of kuni and gun was strengthened. Corresponding to the appearance of this new management form, the bureaucratic arrangements of local administration progressed. As the result of the bureaucratic arrangements of local administration by influential persons in the region, it became possible for zuryo to appoint to kuni level positions their personal subordinates who were not related to the region. Against these actions of zuryo, local influential persons organized resistance movements characterized by listings of grievances called Kokushikaseishuso 国司苛政愁訴. In the middle of 11th century when these movements had ceased, the Zaicho-kanjin system of local bureaucracy was formed, and the political status of influential persons in the region was established.
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  • Tetsuhiko Tosaki
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1546-1568,1671-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Under the canonization system of the Imperial Funeral in ancient China, the term Da-xing 大行 was generally recognized, according to the maxim "大行受大名 (Great deeds deserve a great title)" in the book Yi-Zhoushu 逸周書 (Shifa 諡法), as a title given to an Emperor Huang-di 皇帝 who had passed away. In Japan, too, there exists such a system for an Emperor Tenno 天皇, which has been recognized as being adopted from China. This means that Da-xing can replace the posthumous title (諡) which corresponds to the 'great title'. In other words, Da-xing was a temporary name during the period from an Emperor's death to the confirmation of his posthumous title. In this case, the word Da-xing means 'great deeds'. At least since the Qin 秦 dynasty, however, Da-xing has meant 'a great journey', which implies 'going to Heaven', though, this interpretation had no direct relation with canonization at that time. Focusing upon the historical literature (白虎通, 風俗通, 独断, 史記, 漢書 etc.), it can be seen that the doctrine of interpreting Da-xing as 'a great journey' was established at the time of the first Emperor Qin-Shihuang 秦始皇, along with the Emperor's unification schemes and inspectional journey system, under the patrimonial nation idea. On the other hand, the doctrine interpreting Da-xing as 'great deeds' in order to canonize the Emperor with a temporary title was established by the Confucian officials known as the Archaic (Gu-wen 古文) scholars, who strongly maintained the Emperor's divinity and absoluteness. These two interpretations advanced and affected the canonization process during the later dynasties. According to the author's analysis of the funeral orations 誄, 諡, 諡冊, 哀策, etc. up to the Tang 唐 dynasty, there are four cases of its interpretation and enforcement. (I)'Great journey', meaning the Emperor's honorable death, is the title given to the deceased Emperor from his death to his burial, but under a non-canonization system (秦). (II)'Great deeds', meaning the Emperor's honorable actions during his lifetime, is a temporary name equivalent to a posthumous title from his death until the conferment of his posthumous title, under the canonization system (漢・晋). (III)A name to differentiate the newly enthroned Emperor from the dead Emperor before the latter was buried (魏・宋・梁・陳・唐初). Though this interpretation implies 'Great journey, honorable death', in fact Da-xing substitutes for his posthumous title. Thus it is an advanced form drawing a compromise between (I) and (II). (IV) A name to differentiate the new Emperor from the dead Emperor until his burial. This interpretation was the same as 'Great journey, honorable death', but in this case Da-xing co-occurs with his posthumous title and other titles (尊号・廓号) to form a name. Therefore, it did not substitute for a posthumous title at all. This is an even more advanced form (唐). In general recognition, Da-xing means 'Great deeds' and indicates a name before the conferment of an Emperor's posthumous title. In actual usage, however, it was interpreted as 'Great journey' and was a name given before his burial in many dynasties. Furthermore during the Tang dynasty the naming process became more flexible and the combination with other titles was allowed, and then Da-xing merely meant 'the deceased / the last'. In Japan, some scholars have noticed the difference between the canonizations of the Chinese Emperor Huang-di and the Japanese Emperor Tenno. But they have not considered those changes of the canonization system in China itself. Thus the Japanese usage demands further investigation.
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  • Hideki Takahashi
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1568-1588,1669-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    In differentiating the character of the term ie 家 (family; household) found in early medieval Japanese documents with the same term found in earlier records, two points should be taken into account: ie as a social entity and ie as inherited property. In the research done to date on the subject, the origin of the medieval ie has thought to have been related to such factors as the establishment of a family occupation, a permanent family plot of land, or the family name. In the present article the author approaches its, origins through an investigation of its successors. chakushi 嫡子, from the standpoint of when these inheritors first came into existence and what exactly it was that they inherited. The medieval chakushi institution, which was far different in social significance from the rules outlined in Japan's ancient ritsuryo legal codes, first came into existence among the bureaucratic classes during the 11th and early 12th centuries and was then adopted by the aristocracy in the mid-12th century. Among the aristocrats, chakushi inherited the political power, influence and privilege of their ancestors to a much greater extent that their fellow siblings. The fact that they were entitled almost exclusively to the ownership of family records, important related documents, and paraphrenalia symbolizing the family organization is proof enough that they were truly the inheritors of the ie structure. The chakushi system was adopted by locally-based land proprietors during the early 12th century and it is thought to have been brought about by the establishment of shiki 職 rights and their inheritability. The social position of these local proprietors was usually based on their shiki rights, indicating the passage of this rights from generation to generation was none other the process of ie inheritance. Furthermore, since this indivisible set of shiki rights, privileges and duties sufficiently constituted family wealth, the concept of ie among these local families took on the character of an economic enterprise that needed to be managed. The establishment of an inheritable ie and the chakushi institution for passing it on came into existence amongst such political and social changes as the ritualization of political affairs, the farming out of administrative duties, and the rigid systemization of shiki rights. Since these changes came in response to the needs of the state, the aristocracy and powerful religious institutions, the author is led to the conclusion that the medieval (inheritable) ie and the chakushi system of inheritance both were established as means for satisfying these needs in the best way possible.
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1588-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Atsushi Egawa
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1589-1595
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Koichi Tachikawa
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1596-1603
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Norihiko Fukui
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1604-1614
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1615-1622
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1623-1624
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1624-1625
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1625-1627
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1627-1628
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1628-1629
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1629-1630
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1630-1631
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1631-1632
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1632-1633
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1633-1634
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1634-1635
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1635-1636
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1636-1637
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1637-1638
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1638-1639
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1639-1640
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1640-1641
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1641-1642
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1642-1643
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1643-1644
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1645-1667
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages 1668-1672
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 100 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1991
    Released: November 29, 2017
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