SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 101 , Issue 4
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Naoki Yasumura
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 493-533,659-66
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    La investigacion historica de la estructura agraria de Mexico, en particular de la hacienda, ha avanzado de manera espectacular a partir de la decada de los anos 50. Mientras que en la primera mitad del siglo, los estudios de la historia agraria habian abordado casi exclusivamente sus aspectos juridicos, el estado actual de la investigacion como critica de la referida situacion anterior, tiende a conceder una importancia primordial a los aspectos socioeconomicos del tema,dejando de lado las leyes, instituciones o acontecimientos politicos. A consecuencia de ese cambio de enfoque, se estan desentranado cada vez mas las realidades historicas de la vida rural. En contraste con este avance, no se ha prestado la debida atencion a una cuestion importante para la mejor comprension del agro mexicano; es dicir, como y hasta que grado el marco juridico inherente al sistema de gobierno colonial espanol determino las relaciones socioeconomicas en las zonas rurales. Con el objeto de llenar este vacio en la historiografia actual, en este articulo intentaremos dilucidar concretamente el modo segun el cual el marco juridico o la justicia espanola condiciono la sociedad rural, enfocando una serie de pleitos por tierras que se desarrollaron entre una comunidad indigena y una hacienda en Michoacan desde el ultimo cuarto del siglo XVII hasta mediados del siglo XVIII. El capitulo 1 constituye una breve introduccion a la conquista espanola de Michoacan y el establecimiento del dominio colonial: se estudia el proceso de reestructuracion de la sociedad indigenaen concreto, una comunidad que se llamaba San Luis Nahuatzen y se describe como se desarrollaron las haciendas espanolas llamadas de Bellasfuentes y del Cortijo. A partir del decenio de 1670 se entablaron pleitos por las tierras del Cortijo entre Nahuatzen y Bellasfuentes. En el capitulo 2 se reconstruye esta lucha por las tierras. Analizando los documentos que dejo tras si, se pone de manifiesto no solo que la corona espanola legislaba para proteger a los indios, sino que algunos funcionarios locales estaban dispuestos a respaldar la reivindicacion de los indigenas de acuerdo a las leyes protectoras. Tambien se describen los conflictos dentro del sector espanol, en concreto, entre los alcaldes mayores, sacerdotes y hacendados, de los cuales los indigenas se aprovecharon habilmente para conseguir la colaboracion de los primeros dos grupos en contra de la pretension de los hacendados. A nuestro modo de ver, los indios de Nahuatzen lograron defender su posesion del Cortijo debido al marco juridico que establecio la corona espanola, a las divisiones internas del sector espanol y a su propia iniciativa que hacia valer estos factores en su favor. Tambien es de senalarse que los hacendados no tuvieran mas remedio que recurrir a las medidas legales. Sin embargo, hacia mediados del siglo XVIII los indios de Nahuatzen perdieron el Cortijo en el pleito que tenian contra el dueno de Bellasfuentes. En el capitulo 3 se analiza este momento critico para aquella comunidad indigena. En la busqueda de sus causas, hemos llegado a la hipotesis de que esta derrota no habria sido posible si no hubiese ocurrido algun cambio en el marco juridico que antes habia ofrecido proteccion a la poblacion autoctona. En el capitulo 4 se estudia la nueva politica que empezaron a tomar los reyes borbonicos. Partiendo de una critica contra la ineficiencia de la administracion colonial, esa politica tenia el objeto de reformarla. Concretamente, la revigorizacion de la politica regalista, que intento reducir la jurisdiccion eclesiastica, y la nueva politica agraria fueron las que modificaron el marco juridico tradicional de modo que se fueron eliminando los factores protectores de los intereses indigenas. El pueblo de Nahuatzen seria una de las primeras victimas de este proceso. En este sentido, nuestro caso sugiere la direccion del cambio que iria a generalizarse a favor del sector espanol, con detrimento del indigena, en la socied
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  • Keiko Hongo
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 534-557,657-65
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The main revenue sources of the Court in the early middle ages in Japan were Shokoku-Noumotsu (諸国納物), Jogo (成功) and money contributed by the Bakufu (幕府). Most people recognized that of those three Shokoku-Noumotsu was adequate to for financing public ceremonies. The reveune was sent to the offices of Court by Kuni-Zassho (国雑掌), a subordinate of the Kokushi (国司), and was received by the Nenyo (年預) of these offices. A transition in the system of collecting Noumotsu from Kokuge (国下) to Kyoge (京下), which took place in the late 12th century, meant that giving and taking Noumotsu between the provinces and the capital changed to the manipulation of funds. It was done by a financier and a central government minor official acting like a financier, having nothing to do with the situation in the provinces. On the other hand, the offices organized Benpo-no-ho (便補保) in various places, in order to collect Noumotsu smoothly. Few office were successful, however, most of them failed and were reduced to a nominal existence losing the power to generate revenue sources. For the Court the contribution of money and Jogo by the Bushi (武士) of Bakufu were important revenue sources, as well. As long as the Bushi was happy with the official ranks and posts given them by the Court, they agreed that the ceremonies performed at Court were necessary and participated accordingly, therefore, the Court could count on diverse support from the wealthy Bakufu. Such a trend in financing public ceremonies was engineered by minor government officials, having full knowledge of the decorum of the Court and stocking some funds. They always had contact with a financier like Sanmon (山門) and others. When they wanted to raise funds for management of the provinces or Jogo, they acted themselves like financiers. Moreover, offering their knowledge and talents, they became intimate with the Bushi of Bakufu and played an important part in the Bakufu's economic power and governmental power vis-a-vis the Court.
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  • Hiroyuki Suzuki
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 557-578,656-65
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is a case study describing the local lineages of the Jiang 江 village, She 歙 xian during the Ming and Qing periods. The points are following below. The Jiang lineages gained the advantage in this district socially and economically, and the people believed that the lineage's destiny was under the influence of geomancy, feng-shui 風水. From this point of view, the Jiang lineages and others tried to conserve the environment of the mountainous region against the move by the foreign settlers to develop minerals and commercial agriculture, on a backdrop of opposition arising due to continuing stratification among the lineage members. The festival organization called she-hui 社会, shen-hui 神会, si-nui 祀会, etc. was founded on a sublineage basis, including slaves, zhong-po 庄僕, in the Jiang village and Qing-yuan 慶源 village Wu-yuan 〓源. But the sublineages were not equal one another and the qualification to participate in the festival was limited according to social and economical differences. It's well known that the areas were the hometowns of Hui-Chou (Hsin-an) merchants. Segments of the Jiang lineages extended their business activities to the cities in Jiangnan, especially Yang-zhou 揚州, which was famous as a salt merchant center. But local lineages were not formed in Yang-zhou, rather the merchant segments based their relationships on the original lineages. This presented a precarious position for outside merchants. The connection with the hometown was a sort of insurance against the natural features of the region which would protect them and their descendants.
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  • Kazutoshi Kase
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 579-585
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Minoru Shimao
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 585-592
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Kouji Toyoda
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 592-600
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Sadao Ito
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 601-604
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 605-606
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (253K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 606-607
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (262K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 607-608
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (237K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 608-609
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (274K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 610-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 611-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 612-613
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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    Download PDF (251K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 613-614
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 614-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 615-655
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages 656-660
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
  • Type: Cover
    1992 Volume 101 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 1992
    Released: November 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (36K)
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