Bureaucratic salaries as stipulated by the ritsuryo 律令 system consisted of the two elements of roku 禄 and shi 賜. The former, which formed the wherewithal to support the everyday lives of officials within the bureaucracy, still has many aspects that have yet to be studied. In the present paper, the author discusses through an examination of the basic framework of bureaucratic salaries in eight and ninth century Japan the idea, structure and principles behind the system. The framework of this system was largely determined by 1)the ritsuryo state's character as a regime based in the Kinai region and 2)its ruling class made up of aristocrats of the fifth rank and above. In other words, sustenance households (jikifu 食封) and stipends adjusted according to rank (iroku 位禄) came into being as the special privileges of the ruling class; and semiannual stipends (kiroku 季禄) were established as one way of directly controlling the imperial family and professional bureaucrats. It was these two antagonistic relations that were formed into the Taiho Ritsuryo Codes' salary provisions (Rokuryo 禄令) and are what can be said to be the basic principles behind the state's central salary payment policy. With the establishment of a salary system discriminating between capital-and provincially-based bureaucrats, we see a general system created under which bureaucrats in the capital were paid biannually from collected taxes and tribute, while bureaucrats in the provinces were paid with revenues from land allocated to them (shikiden 職田). One more basic principle behind roku has to do with allocations of food and cloth. Allocations of cloth (jifuku 時服) was based on the principle underlying the ritsuryo salary code, in that it was a lower form of roku paid to a class of menial workers employed outside of the iroku/kiroku provisions and functioned to make them also a part of the bureaucracy. By this interpretation, the author calls for a revision of the conventional thinking that jifuku was an institution set up after the ritsuryo codes (ryoge 令外). Roku system involved the ceremonial aspect of conferring salaries upon individuals through various types of rituals shirokugi 賜禄儀. Recipents were required to gather at the central treasury to be informed officially of their salary statuses. This ceremonial aspect is different from the case of China's "ritsuryo" institutions, which granted salaries on the basis of ethical norms. In Japan, the salary system retained a character of service, benefit and political idea, that is, the distribution of tribute to Kinai area. However, by the second half of the ninth century, We observe a hollowing out of these institutions due to declining revenues on the central level and the payment of salaries directly from provincial offices. One measure to revive the system was vesting allocations of gift in seasonal court banquets (sechiroku 節禄) with the role of salary like roku. As a result, the privileged benefit aspect of roku increased in importance as the role of the ritsuryo state shrunk in size and breadth.
On constate bien l'importance du mouvement paysan pendant la Revolution francaise. Mais on n'a pas encore reussi a preciser sa tendance et sa nature a cause de la diversite des opinions. Nous essaierons donc ici de montrer l'image reelle des masses rurales autant que possible, en nous appuyant sur "l'affaire Carion" en Bourgogne, un de ceux qui ont ete appeles "cure rouge". D'apres la documentation archivistique, on peut signaler les problemes suivants: la reglementation generale de la circulation du ble afin d'en assurer; la reparation et l'elargissement des rues par la destruction des haies et des murs, installes par les riches, qui genaient les passages; la location des biens communaux afin de les soustraire a l'usurpation des notables et leur utilisation pour en faire des deniers publics; l'intervention dans les metayages en vue d'ameliorer les conditions des metayers; l'imposition de la corvee dans le but de reparer les rues; l'etablissement des octrois pour faire des deniers publics; et le maintien de l'ordre mais parfois avec violence.Toutes ces actions du cure et des habitants pauvres d'Issy-l'Eveque, que l'on a rencontrees ci-dessus, s'opposaient naturellement la politique de l'Assemblee Nationale Constituante. Car elle pronait la circulation libre du ble, la propriete inviolable et sacree, la liberte contractuelle et l'abolition totale des privileges, soit ceux des ordres, soit ceux des pays ou des villes. Et l'accomplissement de cette politique, en meme temps, risquait de ruiner les corps qui avaient associe les hommes sous la monarchie absolue. Carion et ses partisans, au contraire, n'avaient aucune intention de detruire les corps, autrement dit, la communaute rurale, quoiqu'ils voulussent certaines innovations pour mieux vivre. Et dans ce but meme, ils osaient rendre la reglementation plus rigoureuse a l'interieur de la communaute. Ils essayaient donc de transformer leur corps, au lieu de dissoudre la solidalite sociale prerevolutionnaire. En somme, bien que la revolution fut acceptee, c'est a dire, la modification de la societe, il y avait des differences entre Carion et les habitants d'Issy-l'Eveque d'une part, et les deputes de l'Assemblee de l'autre, sur la mise en pratique de leurs idees revolutionnaires.Ceux-ci, semble-t-il, visaient a faire la "revolution bourgeoise" et ceux-la, a faire la "revolution paysanne". On peut donc affirmer que l'analyse de "l'affaire Carion" met en evidence les nombreuses contradictions nees de deux conceptions opposees de la Revolution.
This paper analyzes the processes of labor mobilization planning before the outbreak of the Japan-China War in 1937, and puts emphasis on the linkage between the Mobilization Plan and the changes in the labor exchange project. The research on the labor mobilization system was started by the Army, which had studied the war organization of Germany during World War I, which was based on the premise that "total war" would necessitate the distribution and control of all manpower. It contained institutions for "labor requisitioning", reformation of the employment agency, and the prevention and settlement of labor disputes. The scheme of the army was taken over by the Bureau of Resource (資源局)'s Mobilization Plan. During the process of the Periodical Plan of Emergency Mobilization (応急総動員期間計画), the framework of the labor mobilization system…refomation of the agencies for labor mobilization, control of labor exchange, encouragement of labor patriotism, regulation of labor conditions, prevention of labor disputes, training of labor power, and execution of labor requisitioning…was nearly completed. The basic unit of the supply and demand of labor power in wartime was the Prefecture, and Bureau of Labor (労務局) adjusted disparities among several Prefectures, and employment agencies as the organ of implementation were reinforced and nationalized. As the planning progressed, the scale of labor power increased. The main thesis of labor mobilization, therefore, escalated from the control of labor exchange…restriction on employment and mobility…into the mobilization of new labor power; i.e. labor requisitioning. The Social Bureau (社会局) participated actively in the Mobilization Plan according to the industrial and labor conditions of that period. And that trend was known to the officials concerned with labor exchange. They considered it as a good opportunity for the nationalization of employment agencies, which would be some of the most important organs for labor mobilization. This is the hidden aspect of labor exchange projects before the Japan-China War. The abolition of the Labor Exchange Office (職業紹介事務局) in 1936 was planned and promoted in connection with Mobilization Plan.