SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 103 , Issue 11
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Yuko Watanabe
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1889-1924,2038-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    In 1868, Hudson Taylor and his colleagues from the China Inland Mission were attacked at Yangzhou, after just beginning their missionary activities. This Yangzhou Incident (Jiao-an) indicates some problems, .which include antagonism between Christianity and the Chinese traditional world view, a domestic political situation of each side, different methods of missions by different societies, and the relationship between British invasion and missionary enterprize. The real conditions of the Yangzhou Incident can be revealed only by disentangling this knot of complicated facts. The last point, however, has been over-emphasized, and it has led to over-simplification of anti-missionary movements, including the Yangzhou Incident. This simplification ascribes the cause of the incident to Taylor's "forcible" residence in Yangzhou and regards British gunboat diplomacy as a typical protection of missionaries. However, a detailed re-examination of the negotiation process after the incident shows us that such an understanding has to be re-evaluated. First, the fundamental cause of the incident is Chinese antipathy towards the Roman Catholic orphanage in Yangzhou. It was when this ill feeling was reaching a climax that Hudson Taylor and others started living there. It can be said that they were drawn into the incident. Therefore, we have to attach more importance to the meaning of the existance of the orphanage in the Chinese community of Yangzhou than to the validity of Taylor's residence in inland China. Secondly, although British authorities actually used force, its aim was never to protect the inland residence of Hudson Taylor. The government was opposed to it, causing Chinese popular antagonism and stagnation at trade between the two nations. Above all, British missionary policy became more disadvantageous to missionary activities after Yangzhou Incident. Though it is impossible to generalize from this small case study, it is necessary to consider the Yaugzhou Incident by taking a step backward from the stereotyped framework and examining the context of different conditions in order to find out what this Incident was really all about.
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  • Kenji Sato
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1925-1951,2037-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    In this paper, the author attempts to show the conditions by which ancestor worship supports permanent families through a study of funeral and memorial services held for the heads of the Fujiwara Regent families. Through an investigation of those who presided over these ceremonies, how they were carried out, and the way in which they were financed, the author follows the process of how the various memorial services were ritualized into established family customs. He attempts to clarify the origin and characteristic features of these customs as regent family events and their significance within ancient aristocratic society. Concerning funeral services, the Fujiwara Regents were originally given state funerals in accordance with provisions under the ritsuryo codes stipulating that the presiding officer be appointed by the government and that funereal gifts be sent from the public coffers. However, beginning with the funeral of regent Tadahira in the mid-tenth century, both practices were abandoned, thus removing the ceremony from state control in terms of both personnel and material support, turning the event into a family affair. With respect to the ceremony itself, before the funeral of Tadahira the main practice consisted of the reading of an imperial order before the casket. This practice was done away with beginning with Tadahira's funeral, and the whole ceremony was changed so that the state would have no involvement whatsoever. Here we can observe how during the latter half of the tenth Century the funeral services for the Fujiwara Regents were transformed from affairs of state to family-centered events. Turning to the memorial services. Called chuin (an initial period of mourning lasting seven weeks) and shuki (the first anniversary of the death), in Heian period aristocratic society the former was marked by a Buddhist ceremony (gohoji) designed as a public demonstration of remembrance, while the latter was marked by a ceremony (shonichi-butsuji) that was merely a family memorial service. In particular, the gohoji ceremony, which was directed from the family to aristocratic society as a whole, concentrated on signifying the succession of the new family head, and in the case of the Fujiwara family it was a ceremony equal in stature to an affair of state and signified its transformation into the "family of the Regent" within aristocratic society. The latter half of the tenth century, when this ceremony was first established, marked the formation of families whose continuing existence was based on the succession of family heads. In the memorial service called nenki (yearly anniversaries of a death), there are the elements of an event carried on through one generation and an event Hasting from generation to generation. It was usual for the death of a family head to be commemorated yearly throughout the lives of his sons or grandsons; but if the family decided that funds were available, this memorial service could be upgraded to a semi-permanent yearly family event. While the former custom was based on the vertical father-son clientship relationship, the latter was guaranteed through a horizontal relationship involving the participation of all family members in deciding to hold the event and using the family's wealth to finance it. In practice, the latter event became a relatively modest version of the former and became closely tied to a consciousness, of Fujiwara Regent family membership. The idea of the permanent family organization and the funeral and memorial services reinforcing it came into existence during the latter half of the tenth century with the above described Fujiwara Regent family practices, practices that stress the patriarchal relationship between fathers and sons and guarantees by all family members that the events would be continued for generations to come. As long a these relationships existed, these ceremonies would be carried out.

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  • Sumio Kera
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1952-1972
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hiroyuki Shiraishi
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1973-1980
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Satoshi Matsumura
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1980-1986
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Yoko Miyoshi
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1986-1996
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1997-1999
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 1999-2000
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2000-2001
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2001-2002
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2002-2003
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2003-2005
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2005-2006
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2007-2034
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages 2035-2038
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (41K)
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (41K)
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