SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 103 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages Cover1-
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (27K)
  • Ryoju Sakurai
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 151-187,316-31
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    At the time the third Katsura Cabinet was established, no one expected it to collapse within a period of only two months. One of the direct reasons for its collapse was Katsura's unconventional approach to government: instead of seeking the cooperation of the Seiyukai, as the normal practice required, he proceeded to form a completely new political party. Why then, at that particular juncture, did Katsura elect to form a new party? The purpose of this paper is to clarify the reasons for his decision by examining Japan's policy toward China following the Chinese Revolution. Katsura saw that the second Saionji Kimmochi Cabinet had failed to establish a satisfactorily cooperative relationship with the world's political powers following the Chinese Revolution, and he felt a strong necessity to rebuild this relationship, with Japan taking a leading role. Among Katsura's activities aimed at promoting that objective was a trip to Europe, which he carried out on the advice of the pro-Russian politician, Goto Shimpei. In addition, Katsura successfully forged a close political relationship with Kato Takaaki, a pro-British politician, and with non-governmental politicians supporting the Chinese revolutionaries. Katsura founded his new party with the same intentions; that is, to seek realignment of diplomatic relationships in all directions by bringing together people of diverse beliefs into the new party and advocating national unity. Consequently, the Rikken-Doshikai included Kato Takaaki, Goto Shimpei and a group of the National-istic "Tai-gai-ko" members who demanded strong foreign policy and liberal domestic policy. Each faction shouldered an aspect of Katsura's foreign policy. Kato advocated a diplomacy centering on a strong relationship with Britain and used it to solve the "China problem"(Manchuria) through consensus with Britain. Goto advanced the concept of "New Continent vs Old Continent" ; that is, to force Britain and France into alliance with Japan, Russia and Germany as a means of opposing the United States. The Nationalistic "Tai-gai-ko" members, on the other hand, tried to oust the warlord Yuan Shikai and obtained approval for their Manchurian interests by propounding "Asianism" and successfully cooperating with Sun Yatsen's Nampo Group. Though these diplomatic policies were contradictory to each other, the possibility of their reconciliation within the party existed only because of Katsura. The primary aim of the Rikken-Doshikai, in short, was to successfully realign great-power relationships through a new diplomatic policy for Japan following the conclusion of treaty following the Russo-Japanese War, and thus establish Japan's position in the world in the light of the new developments on the Chinese continent.
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  • Kimitsukasa Tasaki
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 188-216,315-31
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper the author first discusses the scheme set up by SASAKI Junnosuke for explaining in concrete terms from the standpoint of early modern history the period of change in Japan spanning the last years of the Tokugawa shogunate and the early years of Meiji. While lauding SASAKI's scheme called "a social revival situation" (yonaoshi jokyo 世直し状況), the author points to its limitations in depicting an historical image of peasants movements from the end of Tokugawa all the way through to the free peoples rights (jiyu-minken 自由民権) movement. Occupying a particularly important place in Sasaki's social revival situation scheme is the Yah-Yah Uprising that occurred following the break up of Aizu-han as a result of its defeat in the Boshin Civil War of 1868. Also, Sasaki's concept of yonaoshi draws heavily on the research of SHOJI Kichinosuke carried out 37 years ago. However, the Yah-Yah Uprising is indeed an excellent starting point for studying peasant movements during the period, because it occurred in the same region (western Fukushima Prefecture) that produced the free peoples rights movement-related Fukushima (Kitakata) Incident of 1882. The task of the present paper is to reconsider Shoji's work in the light of newly discovered source materials and show the errors inherent to Sasaki's "yonaoshi" scheme. These newly discovered source materials collected throughout the Aizu region produce a very different contour of the Yah-Yah Uprising in 1)broadening the geographic location of the uprising that Sasaki has termed the "Aizu five-county civil disturbances" (to actually six counties) and 2)clarifying the number of participants, their social class and the amount of damages wrought in the uprising. As a result of his reconsideration of the Yah-Yah Uprising, the author comes to the following conclusions. First, the evidence makes clear that the uprising developed out of the four northern counties (gun 郡) of Kita-Aizu, Yama, Kawanuma and Ohnuma rather than the southern county of Minami-Aizu as formerly believed. Secondly, the Yah-Yah Uprising, while exhibiting the same contradictions characterized by the later Fukushima Incident, was inevitably an anti-authoritarian action, because it was set off by external factors caused by the Boshin War, but it soon developed into a situation that surpassed the original intent of the peasants, forcing the Meiji government to begin searching immediately for a new regional governance policy. Thirdly, Sasaki's over-emphasis on the significance of the Bureau of Civil Affairs (Minsei-Kyoku 民政局) as the end to the "first stage" of the uprising should be reconsidered in light of the proven relationship of the action taken by local peasants following the outbreak of the uprising to the establishment of the Bureau and an outlook that views the transition to modernity from the more dynamic aspect of clashes between the Meiji government's regional governance policies and local residents. In relation to this final point, through the process of rebuilding the local community political organization (so 惣) within the Uprising, localites where former community leaders were restored to positions of authority…specifically, the development process from former headman to policeman to new village headman among the leaders in the four central counties of the Uprising…attained an important link to their involvement in the free peoples rights movement of the following decades. The author's investigation of the community of Nozawa in Kawanuma County is a classic example of what he terms "the return to the Tokugawa-style local leadership". Finally, the author emphasizes the need to grasp the transition from early modern to modern society in Japan as a process of local socio-economic reform lasting from the Restoration through the people's rights movement era…a process that

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  • Hiroyuki Hokari
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 217-243,313-31
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, the author considers the primary functions of "fellow-regional" (同郷) guilds in China's large cities and how their functions changed, in order to examine the question of assimilation within the urbanization of modern China; As a case in point, the author has chosen to study the practices of the Shanghai-based Ningpo Guild (四明公所) concerning disposition of the corpses of its deceased members. From as early as Tang and Song times, China's cities grew in size by virtue of migration of craftspeople and merchants from the outside, to an extent that these newcomers came to occupy over half of the urban population: Population movement, both rural-to-urban and inter-urban, gave rise to social bonding based on common places of origin and kinship, resulting in the formation of fellow-regional guilds. With respect to the disposition of the dead, it was traditionally desirable in China that one be interred in his place of origin. This custom gave rise to the problem of how the bodies of deceased urban migrants would be preserved while waiting transport back to their birthplaces. Furthermore, both philanthropic organizations (善堂) and fellow-regional guilds took positive action to maintain contact with places of origin through welfare-oriented activities, and thus contributed to the stability of China's Confucianist-based society. Fellow-regional guilds took advantage of the vertical integration of society based on Confucianist morality, that was promoted by the government, as well as horizontal native-place town ties to raise their social positions. In such services as looking after the dead until they could be transported back to their places of origin, the fellow-regional guilds also functioned to integrate the warp and weft of Chinese society and became a longstanding cultural institution symbolizing the characteristic features of Chinese urbanization. At the end of the Qing period, the Ningpo Guild, which was an organization of fellow-regionals from Ningbo, became very active in such social services concerning the dead. However, these practices came into conflict with the attempts by the French Concession to "modernize" urban mortuarial customs. Accepting the challenge posed by European culture, which had modernized its public health systems under pressure from repeated plagues, Chinese cities for the first time took up the problem of holding the dead for transport as a "modernization" issue. The Ningpo Guild was discouraged from continuing its duties of holding corpses in the Concession but the whole mortuarial system evolved in accordance with Chinese custom, resulting in an insufficient solution to the basic public health problems involved. This modernization movement brought about other changes in guild organization, as the call for more public health sciousness caused more participation by lower class Ningbo migrants in the Guild. This fact suggests that the Ningbo. migrants to Shanghai, by continuing traditional corpse disposition practices suitable to their own daily lives, never really settled down as genuine Shanghai citizens. With the funereal reforms carried out after 1949, cremation became the major corpse disposition practice in urban China; bringing about a further weakening of ties between city residents and their hometowns. As migrants settled into the ways of their new urban homes, the problem of what to do with their dead was more easily solved. This state of affairs led to the natural disappearance of the historical role played by fellow-regional guilds in urban China.
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  • Akira Yoshida
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 244-255
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Fumihiko Sueki
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 255-264
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Takashi Koseki
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 264-273
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 274-275
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 275-276
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 276-277
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 277-278
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 278-279
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 280-310
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages 311-316
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages App1-
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages Cover3-
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    1994 Volume 103 Issue 2 Pages Cover4-
    Published: February 20, 1994
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
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