SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 104 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (26K)
  • Chisato Kanda
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 461-495,626
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The aim of this article is to shed some light upon the background of the ikkoikki (一向一揆) uprisings which took place in the Sengoku period. The author takes notice of one feature of the structure of the sect, in contrast to the previous research that has only observed the characteristics of the social class of its members. In the first place, the Hohganji-Shusu (本願寺宗主, chief priest of Honganji temple) could not be shusu Without the recognition of the Honganji family, its vassals, and the Monto (門徒, disciples). The author points out that this recognition prevailed among the bushi (武士, warrior) classes at that time. Secondly, the author analyzes gosho (御書) and goinsho (御印書) to show that the orders issued by shusu were accepted by the monto only after consultation among all the members. Therefore the sect was managed according to an agreement between the shusu and monto. Finally, the author points out the fact that this union of shusu and monto was closely concerned with both the doctrine preached by Honganji and the hope of monto to be born again in the pure land: thus, the mechanism of the uprising.
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  • Yohsuke Takada
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 496-513,626-62
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Kann die Archaologie das Vorhandensein von Friedhofen erst dann bestatigen, wenn auf Knochenfunde verwiesen wird? >>Im mittelalterlichen Stadtgebiet von Sakai hat man bis heute keine einzige Spur eines mittelalterlichen Friedhofs gefunden. Es ist daher anzunehmen, daB es damals den Einwohnern der Stadt verboten wurde, ihre Graber innerhalb der Stadt zu halten.<< Dieser Standpunkt wird von einem ortsansassigen Archaologen vertreten. Ich muB hier aber mit Bedauern feststellen, daB eine solche Meinung viele mittelalterliche Grabsteine auf der Erdoberflache unterschatzt. Die folgende kurze Notiz versucht nun nachzuprufen, wie die mittelalterliche Stadt von Sakai ihren Bewohnern Begrabnisplatze bereitgestellt hat. Fruher gab es drei Dorfer rings um die alte Stadt von Sakai, und jedes Dorf hatte sein Krematorium. Im 17. und 18. Jh. waren diese drei Dorfer abhangig von der Stadt, und die Einwohner der Stadt muBten diese drei Krematorien benutzen. Jedes Krematorium hatte einen dazugehorigen Friedhof. Einer von diesen drei Friedhofen ist in den letzten Jahren zum Teil ausgegraben und untersucht worden. Diese Friedhofe wurden im Verlauf des 19. Jhs nicht mehr benutzt. Der Grund darfur ist wohl, daB immer mehr Menschen tempeleigene Friedhofe fur das Begrabnis gebrauchten. Wir haben schriftliche und archaologische Beweise, die belegen, daB viele Tempel der Stadt bereits im 17. und 18. Jh. innerhalb des Tempelgebiets als Begrabnisstatten dienten. Schon 1951 verzeichnete Yoshida Takamichi viele mittelalterliche Grabsteine innerhalb der Tempel im mittelalterlichen Stadtgebiet von Sakai. Auf den meisten davon sind Sterbedaten aud dem 16. Jh. eingemeiBelt. Dies scheint mir zu beweisen, daB die einzelnen Tempel auch schon im 16. Jh. als Begrabnisstatten dienten. Dazu kommt noch, daB im 17. und 18. Jh. jeder Tempelfriedhof in der Stadt leistungsfahig fur Beerdigungen genutzt wurde. Es muBten namlich die alten Leichen eine nach der anderen den neuen Verstorbenen Platz machen. In einem solchen Tempelfriedhof sind Grabsteine mit Todestagen aus dem 16. Jh. ausgegraben worden. Dies zeigt, daB der Tempel schon im 16. Jh. als Begrabnisort benutzt wurde. Im 16. Jh. (am Ende des Mittelalters) waren alle drei oben erwahnten Dorfer selbstandig. Und jedes scheint danials sein eigenes Kremdtorium (und den dazugehorigen Friedhof) ausschlieBlich fur die eigenen Einwohner benutzt zu haben. Daher wurden die meisten Einwohner der Stadt Sakai damals. zweifelsohne in den Tempelfriedhofen innerhalb des Stadtgebiets begraben.
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  • Shigeyuki Makihara
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 514-538,624-62
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Previous studies have mentioned that administrative villages in the Tokugawa Period often consisted of small hamlets, which functioned as real communities of inhabitants. However these studies treat villages as formed districts, calling them "villages for rule" and do not describe the concrete and historical relationships between the administrative village and small hamlet. The present article takes this problem into consideration and examines the case of Shita-kaize village in Shinano Province. The boundaries of this village were first settled in accordance with a traditional, medieval district, called Kaize-go, which was divided into three early modern villages. As the result, Shita-kaize village took a particular form, which included some small hamlets. In the latter half of 17th century, Hanaoka hamlet became an independent group (kumi) inside the village and obtained a chief (nanushi). However, the independence of Hanaoka was not official, but private, so Hanaoka could not participate in the official administration of the village, which was under the control of the main hamlet, Hon-go. Thus, during the first half of the Tokugawa Period, the administration of the village was more or less monopolized by Hon-go and the class of main head families (hon-ke), so for the branch hamlets like Hanaoka, and the pesants of branch families (bun-ke), the village was not a democratic district at all, but an artificial unit. In the 18th century, there occurred rapidly developing transfers of land-ownership and class mobility among the peasants. Some branch family peasants obtained economic power and changed the group (kumi) to which they had belonged, or formed a new group (waka-gumi) so as to obtain a rank equal to the head families. These developments finally caused trouble over the post of the chief (nanushi) of Hon-go. As a consequence, the groups of Kumi, Hongo and Hanaoka no longer corresponded to their respective hamlets. The relation between the groups - until then Hanaoka had been under control of Hongo which had monopolized the administration of the Village - became more equal, the ties among the whole village became stronger. On the other hand, village officials come to be served by not only the peasants of the head families but also those of the branch families. In the latter half of the Tokugawa Period, closed administration maintained by the head families as "the village tradition" (郷例) came under criticism by the peasants of the branch families (komae), who changed and participated in the administration of the village, depending on their respective hamlets as feal comunities. Thus, respective hamlets come to play an equal role in the administration of the village. The administrative village, which was originally established as a formal, artificial district, was transformed into a substantial one by its inhabitants, especially the branch hamlets and the branch families. With regard to inter-hamlet relations, it has often been mentioned that branch hamlets tried to become officially independent villages, and main hamlets obstructed those attempts. In this article the author points out that there was another possibility, that is, branch hamlets which had been originally excluded from the administration of a village came to participate in it on an equal basis with the main hamlet, thus changing the administrative village into a substantive district.
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  • Yoichiro Hanada
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 539-563
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Sadako Takinami
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 564-568
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hideo Koga
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 568-574
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 575-577
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 577-580
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (446K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 580-581
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 582-583
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (257K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 582-583
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (257K)
  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 584-622
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages 623-626
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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