SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 104 , Issue 8
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hiroki Kikuchi
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1361-1396,1517-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    While persons known as jikyosha 持経者 have been recognized in the research literature as holy people (ヒジリ), it is still not clear what the practice of "jikyo" actually involved. In this paper the author intends to understand jikyosha within the context of the historical development of Japanese society. In the Nihon Ryoiki 日本霊異記, jikyo appears to be on a level with incantation in the sense of learning sutras and reciting them from memory. In the eighth century under the ritsuryo state reciting the Lotus Sutra and Saisho-o sutra by heart was a requirement for entering the Buddhist priesthood. This policy was strictly maintained until the mid-tenth century, during which time it was a widespread custom for novices to memorize sutras while performing begging in the streets and asceticism in the wild. The ritsuryo code for Buddhist priests and nuns was abandoned, and jikyosha then appeared as holy people with their bases of activity in the mountains and forests. There are many place names related to jikyosha in the source materials concerning Shugen-do 修験道 (mountain asceticism), meaning that many legendary ascetics like those of Omine 大峯 and Kumano 熊野 were regarded as jikyosha and were in a position to perform the Buddhahood ceremony (abhiseka 潅頂) and grant legitimacy with engi 縁起 to other mountain ascetic. The recital of sutras from memory was considered to be a magical, mystic training requiring supernatural virtue and determined by the practice of one's past life. Mountain asceticism and sutra recital are similar in the aspect of attaining magical character, and both were in fact complementary to each other. The promotion of sutra recital by the ancient state shows its intention not only to absorb its magical power, but also control and limit it. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, demonstrations of magical power took genuine form in response to the demands of the society. The divine service of jikyosha for aristcrats and provincial governors in their small Buddhist chapels and ceremonies involving some 1000 jikyosha in the Lotus Sutra tradition were seen throughout the country, even though the actual number of jikyosha was small. Sutra recital was not only an important part of special ceremonies, but also became part of yearly or monthly Buddhist liturgies. Shunjo-bo Chogen 俊乗房重源 was a representative jikyosha of the time. He was during his prime a mountain ascetic, and during his activities in the great Kanjin 勧進 of Todaiji temple, he often mobilized jikyosha in the ceremony of his own planning. During his last years, he was active in promoting memorization of the Lotus Sutra among children and organized 1000 jikyosha events. Through an analysis of Chogen's activities, the author shows the definite establishment of a place for jikyosha activities within the Ken-mitsu 顕密 Buddhist temple like Todaiji. The paper concludes with an investigation of why from the thirteenth century the general Buddhist laity were allowed to memorize and recite sutras, a consideration of the broader meaning of the practice, in addition to a discussion of themes for future study, like the relationship between jikyosha and Nichiren 日蓮.
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  • Moriyoshi Hasumi
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1397-1433,1516-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Up till now the history of relations between the Ming Dynasty and the Ri Dynasty (李朝) has been studied from the viewpoint that the Ming Dynasty was better placed than the Ri Dynasty. In this paper, through the study of Sino-Korea relations at the time of the T'u-mu 土木 crisis (15 August 1449), the author attempts to find a clue to the tone of the Sino-Korean tse-feng 冊封 system. During the Cheng-t'ung 正統 era, the wo-k'ou (倭寇), who had been out of hand since the early Ming, began to be held in check. After the power of wo-k'ou faded away, the Oirat (オイラ-ト) extended rapidly their power from northwest China. In the early Ming period, the T'u-mu crisis symbolized this change of circumstances. With the advance of the Oirat, the emphasis of the Ming Dynasty frontier defense shifted to the northern frontier. The Ri Dynasty was closely connected with the Ming Dynasty's pei-lu nan-wo (北慮南寇) countermove; and just after the T'u-mu crisis, the Ming Dynasty demanded that Korea should send re-enforcements and twenty or thirty thousand horses to the Ming Dynasty. To begin with, the meaning of the demand for horses was that the maintenance of the tse-feng system was indispensable to both the Ming emperor and the king of Korea. Because it meant security against pei-lu nan-wo and the maintenance of a self-centered world order. Furthermore the author points out that Liao-tung Tu-ssu (遼東郡司) stood geographically between the Ming Dynasty and Korea and played important diplomatic and military roles. Liao-tung Tu-ssu which was in trouble side and outside the Ming Dynasty, took the initiative of demand for reinforcements in September and October 1449. The author concludes that! (1)It is necessary to consider that the Sino-Korean tse-feng system simultaneously in terms of the relations between the Ming emperor and the Korean king and the relations among Liao-tung Tu-ssu, the Korean king and the northdastern tribes. (2)It was necessary for the Ming emperor, Liao-tung Tu-ssu and the Korean king to maintain and make use of the tse-feng system.
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  • Shunsuke Katsuta
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1434-1456,1515
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    During the 1820s. the Catholic Emancipation movement was the most important single issue in Ireland. Its original aim was to remove legal discrimination against Catholics. The most remarkable thing about this movement was the fact that lower-class people, who were almost all poor peasants, for the first time in Irish history broadly and enthusiastically took part in a movement whose main character was "political". The aim and fruits of the movement were, however, not relevant to those people directly. This paper tries to explain why they took part. Contrary to some former arguments, they were not the puppets of their leaders, nor did they participate without their own ideas. They committed themselves to the movement holding their own ideas and visions about Catholic Emancipation, and these ideas were not identical to those held by the leaders who were mainly, the middle-class men. In fact, the people adopted and modified the words and their meanings used by the leaders in such a way that they became congenial to their traditional mentality. This was how they made up their own version of "Catholic Emancipation", which had a social revolutionary character. As a result, two relatively autonomous, but related Emancipation movements came to exist: one for the leaders, and one for the people. Here lies, the main reason why the people strongly committed themselves to an issue which seems on the surface to have had no relationship to them. As stated above, this paper tries to explain how a particular cultural and social group made up their cultural and social action, by focusing on the fact that the members of that group appropriated words as cultural goods. And also, by relating this psychological process with the actors' mental structure, the author tries to present a case study for the action of creating the meaning (appropriation), which is a main concern of the historiography now.
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  • Ichiro Nitta
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1457-1467
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Eiji Sakurai
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1467-1475
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Eiji Sakurai
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1467-1475
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1476-1477
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1477-1478
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (261K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1478-1479
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (260K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1479-1481
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (357K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1480-1481
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (261K)
  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1482-1514
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages 1515-1518
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (253K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1995 Volume 104 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 1995
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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