In this paper, the focus of analysis is the Moral Reform Movement, which lasted for several decades after the Glorious Revolution (1688-9). The city of Bristol is taken as a case study of the Movement outside of the capital. There were two institutions in Bristol which initiated the Moral Reform Movement in the post-Glorious Revolution era. One was the Corporation of the Poor, the other was the Society for the Reformation of Manners (SRM). The moral treatment of the poor through the establishment of workhouses was the most important task of the Corporation, which was founded in 1696. The origins of the SRM in Bristol can be traced back to 1700. The central task of SRM in Bristol was to provide information concerning vicious persons to local constables, in order to make prosecutions of such persons more efficient. There are slightly different ideologies underlying the Corporation of the Poor and SRM. The former made effors mainly for the city's own interests, while the latter worked for the whole English nation. Though SRM was not a branch some organization in London and was managed independently by Bristolians, it had been getting instructions and information from other reformation societies in London. As far as the Moral Reform Movement in Bristol is concerned, at least three different intentions can be identified. Firstly, there were those of the Williamites, who intended to strengthen the integration of the English nation through the Movement in order to protect it from the "vicious" Catholic state, of France. Secondly, there were the intentions of the city elite as a whole for whom the economic issue was probably most important. Lastly, there were the intentions of two political groups, the Tories and the Whigs. Through the Movement, those political groups attempted to increase the numbers of their respective supporters to use in a battle of power against each other. To sum up, these diverse intentions could emerge and 'coexisit' only in the special social context of the post-Glorious Revolution era. By the time of the Hanoverian Succession, the Movement in Bristol had almost entirely dissolved at the local level and stopped functioning as a national movement. However, what historians should remind themselves of concerning these events is the fact that through participating in the post-Glorious Revolution Moral Reform Movement, some urban elite were forced to think more about national issues in the contekt of international power politics, than they would have otherwise. This experience was no doubt built upon as later generations participated in various movements for national reform in the 1760s and 1780s, in which the question of morals was still one of the main topics on the agenda.
The cult of the healing god Asklepios was a very popular one in the Greco-Roman world. The so-called Telemachos monument (SEG. XXV. 226) tells a story about the introduction of this god in Athens in 420 B.C. We already have many studies about Asklepios, but very few of these studies present an appropriate view concerning the significance which the introduction of Asklepios had on politics and religious activities in Athens in the last half of the fifth century. In conclusion, the author argues that the introduction of Asklepios in Athens was a religious policy to reconstruct the Athenian religious piety which had been squashed by the great plague. The new festival for Asklepios involved the following major themes. The Epidauria, the new festival for Asklepios, was an attempt to link the god Asklepios with the Eleusinian goddesses. Such an association would strengthen the Eleusinian cults by providing the Greek people, especially the Delian League, a concept they could easily identify with. In turn, this plan was supposed to provide Athens with a revival from the plague, and to encourage her allies to dispatch offerings of "first fruits" to Eleusis. The introduction of the festival and the construction of a shrine were carried out in cooperation with the Epidaurian priests, Eleusinian priests and Telemachos, all according to a detailed plan. But conflict arose between the Kerykes and Telemachos. The problem involved the enlargement of the Asklepieion, the sanctuary of Asklepios in the city. Telemachos' motive for an enlargement of this site would have concerned the establishment of the healing cult. Finally, this incident clearly identifies the religious changes that were occurring at this time. Furthermore, the multiplicity of values held by the people of Athens during this period can also be identified.
This paper analyzes the effects of the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 upon Japan, placing emphasis on subsequent social changes. "The mobilization of citizens" for emergency was planned in larger cities, such as Osaka and Tokyo, on the basis of the Great Kanto Earthquake experience. "The mobilization of citizens" served as a slogan to mobilize citizens in a systematic way, in order to maintain public order, extinguish fires, rescue the injured, etc., in the event of natural disaster or attack from the air. The tragic experiences of the Great Kanto Earthquake, combined with analogous experiences suffered by European cities, which had been subjected to air raids during WWI, led directly to the first Japanese investigation into measures to prevent disasters resulting from possible air attack. After the Great Earthquake it became a matter of urgent necessity to come up with measures to prevent such disasters. Though it was of course only in the late 1930's that full-scale air defense measures were devised, their origin can be traced back to the Great Kanto Earthquake. Historians have generally regarded "the mobilization of citizens" in the 1920's merely as part of the mobilization plans made by the Army. In contrast, this paper stresses the natural disaster prevention aspect of "the mobilization of citizens," focusing on the role played by Japan's Osaka and Tokyo local governments, because it was the local governments which prepared rescue plans and organized citizens' rescue teams. In the 1930's these plans (and the rescue teams formed on their basis) were drawn upon when the Army prepared its own contingency measures against air attacks. To sum up, this paper is a case study of one important way in which WWI and the Great Kanto Earthquake influenced Japanese history.