SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 107 , Issue 8
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Taisuke OKADA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1411-1445,1557-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Throughout classical Greek History, most mercenary soldiers came from peripheral regions like Archadia, Aetolia and Crete. Few resources and too many mouths to feed have been often indicated as forming the background of working away from home. As a matter of fact, agricultural conditions in those regions cannot always be thought of as unfavorable in comparison with the rest of Greece. So, it is important to focus upon the social and economic conditions of these peripheral peoples to study the origins and development of mercenaries among them. This paper is a case study of Crete, which was a major source in the recruitment of mercenary forces in the armies of warring powers during Hellenistic times. In Hellenistic Crete, like Sparta, the ownership of landed estates had markedly changed in character. Polybios says in his time that citizens could have as much land as they were able to acquire. A logical conclusion is that on the one hand, landed estates became owned by fewer and fewer people, while on the other hand, more and more people lost what land they possessed. Serious discontent spread throughout the island among citizens deprived of land and young men trained from boyhood in athletic and military pursuits. In this same period, Cretan cities concluded many international treaties with the major political powers of the Hellenistic World, and as a result of these treaties, frequently dispatched "allied troops" overseas. In the guise of bilateral agreements these treaties principally aimed at ensuring stable supplies of mercenary troops for kings, cities, or leagues of cities. The evidence suggests that these Cretan mercenaries were normally those citizens who could still provide their own weaponry, but were suffering economically. These citizen・soliders went abroad almost exclusively under the control of the oligarchic rulers of cities. Negotiations for recruiting mercenaries were often controlled by the governments of individual Cretan cities themselves and recruiting campaigns on the island required their permission. This is the reason why, in Hellenistic Crete, a redivision of land or other radical changes never happened, as far as we know. The ruling oligarchies of cities coped with this critical situation by sending abroad people who had been reduced to poverty and discontented with existing regime as hired soldiers and allowing them to enjoy the benefits of war, while at the same time to averting the revolutionary energy of people upsetting the ancien regime. On the other hand, the alliances with foreign powers were beneficial in both political and military aspects for the oligarchic parties that dominated the Cretan cities. In their own feuds or in social conflicts, they found supporters in those foreign powers in return for providing mercenary forces to them.
    Download PDF (2513K)
  • Yukiko NODA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1446-1470,1555-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Ancient Japan, the emperor's Procession was called robo 鹵簿. In China, Lu-bu 鹵簿 meant not only the procession of the emperor, but also those of other royalty and nobility. This paper examines how imperial authority in ancient Japan and Tang 唐 China was displayed robo and related ceremonies. The Code of Processions (Lu-bu-ling 鹵簿令) of the Tang dynasty was characterized by the system and the emperor's large-scale Procession. The former outlined the system of carriages (lu 輅) to transport the Tang emperor and the crown prince which differed according to the type of ceremonies. Other royalty and nobility rode in the same types of carriage in which the emperor rode. The Chinese vehicular system was a symbol of the fact that the Chinese emperor was at the top of the rites (li 礼) order, which included social position. Rites were fundamentally established during the Qin 秦 and Han 漢 dynasties to coordinate land, but became larger and wider in scale with many guards on the right and left sides of the Tang dynasty aiming at centralistic officialism and strengthening the emperor's dictatorship. At the same time, a huge number of guards stood in lines on the court yard where the important national ceremonies was held. The large-scale imperial Procession and a number of lines of guards in its ceremony signified that the emperor monopolized political and military authority in Tang China. In ancient Japan, the system of the Chinese emperor's procession was partly introduced, but the formation of the Japanese emperor's Procession and the vehicular system were unique from those of the Tang dynasty. The emperor was the only male person to ride the sedan chair (koshi 輿), other male royalty and nobility used different types of vehicules Furthermore, in the important national ceremonies at the Daigoku-den 大極殿 hall and in the court yard (dentei 殿庭), the emperor was served mainly by ladies of the court on the hall, while the male court stood on the court yard. The Procession and its ceremonies in ancient Japan expressed that the Japanese emperor was exceptional and transcendental from others, especially male royalty and nobility, indicating that the nature of imperial authority, in ancient Japan was basically different from that of the Tang dynasty.
    Download PDF (2438K)
  • Shigeyuki MAKIHARA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1471-1491,1554-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper discusses the structure and development of shuku (宿, towans or villages which functioned for lodging, traffic and transportaion) in the 17th century through some cases along the Nakasendo, and other roads in Kozuke and Shinano Provinces. The author takes notices that shuku, which so far have been treated apart from village society, should be considered within the socialeconomic trends of the whole society, observing spontaneous and actual transpotation, not presumed with privileged positions of shuku established by the rulers. His conclusions are as follows. In the 17th century, one of the social-economic issues surrounding shuku was whether the toiya (問屋) monopolized the transport of drayages or other inhabitants shared in such transport as yado (宿 shuku lodgings). Originally toiya did monopolize transport, but in the course of time, other inhabitants degan to request it on the basis of the development of trade between the shuku and their vicinities. Thus, toiya lost their monopoly and came to play only a specialized role in controlling official traffic and transportation. On the other hand, there was another possibility of toiya keeping their monopolies and passing them on from generation to generation, but in these cases as well, the relationship between toiya and the community changed. That is to say, inhabitants competed with the toiya in order to aquire equal rights to transport drayage. Other inhabitants began to restrict toiya activities and subsumed them under the principle of the community as mawashi 廻し (taking turns). Such conflict between toiya and yado can be found in many aspects of trade and transportion. This paper observes that such conflict took place, it was characteristically between influential toiya and town communities.
    Download PDF (1755K)
  • Jun'ya TAKATSU
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1492-1497
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (554K)
  • Osamu TAKAHASHI
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1497-1506
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (904K)
  • Toshinori YOSHIDA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1506-1516
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1017K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1517-1518
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (235K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1518-1519
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (247K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1519-1520
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1520-1521
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (251K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1521-1523
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (344K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1523-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (136K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1524-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (50K)
  • Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1525-1553
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2092K)
  • Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages 1554-1558
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (243K)
  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
feedback
Top