SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 107 , Issue 9
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages App1-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Shinji KANADA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1559-1580
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    After the opening of China to trade with the west, foreign banks entered into the Chinese markets by establishing business relationships with foreign small and middle size trading companies. Therefore, the study of their operations, especially the foreign exchange business, should make it possible to understand the character of foreign trading companies. Although foreign banks were rivaled by large companies at the beginning, they maintained good relations with small and middle size firm from the start. Chapter one of this paper concerns when and where bank branches were established. The Financial Committee of the East India Company can be regarded as the herald of banking in China. In chapter two bank operations are discussed. The Hong Kong branch of the Oriental Bank started note issuance in 1846, and their notes were gradually accepted by the local community. The importance of East Asia, including Hong Kong, in banking is ascertained by note issuance and amounts of bullion and cash. In the area of deposits, the fact that the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank showed strength tells of the development of limited corporations in Hong Kong and other treaty ports. The exchange business has also been examined as quantitatively as possible, allowing us to grasp the situation of foreign dxchange bills in Foochow and Hong Kong during the 1860's. Chapter three submits a new point of view concerning the Financial Panics of 1866, discussing the relationship between foreign banks and small and middle size companies using the example of Mackellar & Co. in Honkow. Although it is impossible to discover clearly the relationships between foreign banks and Chinese merchants, in chapter four the author detects a chronological change based on advertisements and articles contained in contemporary newspapers.
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  • Akira GOTO
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1581-1583
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Gakusho NAKAJIMA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1584-1614
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    In this article, the author discusses the problem of dispute resolution in Hui-chou rural society and it's relationship to formal adjudication at the magistrate's court, by analysing documents, such as wen-yueh(分約)and ho-t'ong(合同)of the later half of the Ming period. During the earlier half of Ming, under the li^chia(里甲)system, li-chang(里長, the li-chia head man)and Lao-jen(老人, community elder)mainly resolved disputes which took place in the community, in cooperation with other informal mediation. From the 16th centry onward, li-chang often took part in the dispute resolution. In Hui-chou, the li-chia system was generally closely related to local prominent lineage organization ; therefore, li-chang was able to assume an important role in the settlement of rural disputes, mediation and investigation of lawsuits, even in the late Ming. On the other hand, lao-jen, who originally bore the responsibility of dispute resolution in rural society, far less flequently appear as mediators or arbitrators in the documents. In place of lao-jen, from about late 16th centry, hsiang-yueh(郷約, community compact)and pao-chia(保甲, community self-defence system)began to be concerned with dispute resolution and maintenance of rural public order. Moreover, mediation and arbitration by relatives, various meddlemen and local influential persons also played important roles in the settlement of rural disputes. Lineage organization often resolved disputes between lineage members. If rural disputes could not be resolved in the community, complaints were filed at the magistrate's court. When such complaints were accepted, magistrates ordinally first delegated li-chang, hsang-yueh etc.to investigate disputed points then summoned defendants and witnesses to the court in cooperation with plaintiffs. Unlike the Ch'ing period, local government runners seldom went into community to deal with lawsuites. Not a few lawsuits were settled by various unofficial mediators before the court session or magistrate's final judgement, while others were settled by magistrate's artribution or judgement as the result of cross-examination in court. In conclusion the author takes a general view of disputes resolution in rural society in the later half of the Ming, by analysing a total of 75 disputes described in the Hui-chou documents. The greater part of these disputes were land cases, especially regarding mountains, forests, and graveyards, and included disputes over ownership, land boundaries and troubles over land transaction, not a few land disputes involved various illegal acts, for example double or outright sales of land, infringements of another's real estate, cutting down of another's forests, and so on. In addition, disputes over landlord-tien-p'u(佃僕, servants/tenants)and landlord-tenant relations and lineage's common property are often revealed in the documents, and there are also a few disputes over inheritance and injury cases. Of the 75 cases, disputes between members of the same kin group were mainly settled by mediators among the kin group or relatives. On the other hand, disputes between different surname groups and between landlords and tian-p'u or tenants were often mediated by other middlemen in the community. While, li-chang were generally concerned with settlement of disputes that occured in the community regardless of relation between the parties concerned. From the 16th centry onward, as local control based on the li-chia system established during the early Ming was gradually unstabled, more and more diversified persons and groups, such as hsi-ang-yueh and pao-chia, began to take part in rural dispute resolution, while mediation by kin group, relatives, and middlemen in the community grew more and more important. Generally, the framework of dispute resolution in Hui-chou rural society were far more fluid and unstable than under the ealier half of

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  • Hiroyuki SHIODE
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1615-1637
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    In the present paper the author analyzes Oi Kentaro 大井憲太郎 in the period before and after the opening of the Imperial Diet in 1890 as a proponent of what political parties should be in the parliamentary system, which was alternative to those often regarded as the mainstream. Oi always thought that the Diet was necessary as an system to realize political participation of patriots. This idea was an extended version of the idea of public opinion 公議輿論 which had spread in the period of the Meiji Restoration. In 1889 Oi left the Union-at-Large 大同団結 and formed a non-association party 非政社, because he disagreed with the decision by the majority of the Union to organize a political association 政社 with no firm principles for forming a majority party. Oi believed that every patriot, and so every political party, must choose and hold fast to its principles. He thus planned an alliance 連合 with any party agreeing on practical questions, without organizing one association from them. In fact, his party nearly cooperated with the Constitutional Reform Party 立憲改進党. This way of allying lead to the Alliance-for-Progressive-Group 進歩派連合 Movement ; but the Government restricted the movement's activites by enacting the Assembly-and-Political-Association law 集会及政社法 which made alliances impossible. This was why the focal point of the early Imperial Diet was fixed on forming a majority party. Oi planned to bind the party's Diet members to party decisions made by members outside the Diet, to enable those not franchised to take part indirectly in the Diet as effectively as possible. His plan worked well for the Constitutional Liberal Party 立憲自由党 just after the Diet opened, because its Diet members were still not organized well and because Oi put pressure on them through his young followers. However, soon Diet members grew more and more dissatisfaction, and Oi's plan gave way to Hoshi Toru(星亨)'s plan that gave authority over party decisions to Diet members. Moreover, the Liberal Party under Hoshi's leadership put the treaty revision question under a party decision incompatible with Oi's opinion, though the question had been regarded as the issue in which patriots should have a voice and one transcending the area of party interests. Thus Oi was excluded from the party. After restrictions on alliances was loosened, however, six parties, including Oi's, formed an alliance based on a hardline foreign policies 対外硬六派連合, not least of which was the treaty revision question. Although merely a countermeasure against the Liberal Party's compromise with the Government, this alliance showed that the public consensus of patriots Oi had been hoping for was indeed possible in the Diet.
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  • Shunsuke KATSUTA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1638-1653
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Mitsuo HAGIHARA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1654-1665
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hiroshige TSUCHIDA
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1665-1673
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Yasuhiro OTSUKI
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1673-1682
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1683-1684
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1684-1685
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (240K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1685-1686
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (236K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1686-1687
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (241K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1687-1688
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1688-1689
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (237K)
  • Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1690-1717
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages 1718-1722
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages App2-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages Cover3-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (57K)
  • Type: Cover
    1998 Volume 107 Issue 9 Pages Cover4-
    Published: September 20, 1998
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (57K)
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