SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 109 , Issue 10
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Shinji KANADA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1781-1814,1954-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The "opening" of East Asian ports, such as Hong Kong, Shanghai, Bangkok, Saigon, and Yokohama, in the mid nineteenth century meant they were opened not only to trade with Western countries but to trade among themselves. While the structure of their traditional economies, where traditional goods were dealt, was maintained, new factors were added with the participation of Western merchants. The author of this article quentitatively studies that situation based on two key words, Hong Kong and rice. How much rice was imported into China is examined in Chapter I by using reports of British consuls and Chinese Maritime Customs. Chapter II draws a rough sketch of trade in Hong Kong according to this documentation. At the same time we find that they can't depict the whole or exact image. Therefore the author constructs a database for the Hong Kong market from a contemporary newspaper of 1864, and analyzes it in Chapter III according to categories of goods. This analysis shows how much of each item was sold and by whom it was bought. In Chaper IV he delineates the structure of Hong Kong trade in 1864, while synthesizing the previous two chapters. Chapter V deals with the rice trade of an American firm, Augstine Heard & Company from 1840 until the early 1870s, to understand the chronological phase of the rice trade in East Asia. Through above analyses we get the idea that rice was the most important commodity in the Hong Kong market with the exception of opium, that it was far more dealt than english manufactured goods, that it was re-exported to South China by Chinese junks and to North China by Western ships via Hong Kong after importation from South East Asia, and that it was also re-exported to Japan during 1867-71 when demands on China decreased, showing the situation of the intra-Asian rice trade and how Hong Kong played the role of an emporium. Finally, concerning to the share of rice import into Hong Kong, Chinese merchants accounted for forty per cent.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1814-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Masahiro NISHITANI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1815-1844,1953-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The present article attempts to shed light on the local structure of land ownership in medieval Japan through a study of villages on the periphery of the capital city of Kyoto, as documented in Toji東寺 Temple's Hyakugo-Monjo百合文書 collection. From an examination of a sworn statement issued by persons belonging to Toji's Kuze久世 Estate, the Muromachi era, handwritteen seals affixed to documents can be divided into full seals(Kao花押) in the case of local gentry(jizamurai地侍) and abbreviated seals in the case of commoners(hyakusho百姓). Using this data to analyze documents concerning sales and purchases of land in the Toji domains, he concludes that even in the late medieval period, when it is thought that in general peasant "land ownership" was being firmly established, around Kyoto landless classes still formed the majority of the rural population. It was during the medieval period that absentee proprietorships went through a great transfomation. On the one hand, the Muromachi era village was in practice given the right to cultivate land on a communal basis, while tax farming managers representing absentee landlords formed the jizamurai class, which in turn sub-contracted the land under their jurisdiction to village commoners. The right of land holding called sakushiki作職, which was established during the fourteenth century, arose directly from this stratified structure of agricultural sub-contracting, and thus cannot be interpreted simply as the right of cultivators to own land. The majority of peasants in medieval times were for all intents and purposes sub-contracting the land they cultivated. Landholding on their part thus emerged from the maintenance of the right held by the autonomous village community(sosho惣荘) to cultivate land communally. The understanding posed by this article therefore negates the socalled "honshuken"本主権 hypothesis that argues strong ties existed between peasants and the land they cultivated. Rather, what was being strengthened here was the right of cultivators to the fruits(sakumo作毛) of the land they were sub-contracting, not any deep-rooted consciousness concerning land ownership. The conventional opinions concerning land holding usually depict the expansion of cultivator rights during the medieval period taking place within a process of firmly establishing individual rights to cultivation(and land ownership). However, the author argues that the main current of such a trend should be considered rather as an evolution in rights to land use.
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  • Kazuhiro IWAMA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1845-1870,1951-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The Anti-Kidnapping Society (AKS, Zhongguo jiuji juru hui) was a charity organization in Shanghai founded in 1912 by the business elite of Zhejiang. The AKS investigated the abduction of women and children, took care of the victims, and handed them over to their families. Based mainly on the letters and reports of AKS, this essay studies activity and philosophy of merchants regarding the relief of women and children. First, compared with pre-modern goodwill organizations, AKS shows some new developments in the early-twentieth century, including assimilation of the Western idea of philanthropy, voting to elect trustees, revision and embodiment of regulations, reports of accounts and conferences, raffles to raise funds, fixed salaries for staff, and vocational education for asylum inmates. Secondly, the membership of AKS was not only business elite and VIPs in the government, but also included ordinary merchants, groups of employees, recluses, anonymous contributors, groups of employees, recluses, anonymous contributors, women and gentlemen from western countries. In addition, the philanthropists of AKS preached Confucian ethics to women and children in the asylum in order to help them achieve emotional and practical autonomy (zlil). Viewed in this light, one may say that the merchants of Republican Shanghai intended to run their charitable organizations democratically. Thirdly, attention is drawn to the gap between the ideals and actual activities of AKS. It had an altruistic and enthusiastic philosophy, while its asylum received warnings from the Municipal Social Affairs Bureaus for lack of hygiene and education. The reason for this gap is the members' double motives for performing acts of charity. They hoped to establish good reputations in local society, as well as work as a united body to provided relieve to the people of China (Zhongguo-guomin). Furthermore, becouse of the government's negative view concerning the particularistic motive behind AKS' philosophy, private philanthropists came to sense contradictions between the state and local society.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1870-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Harumi GOTO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1871-1891
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Yumiko MARUYAMA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1892-1905
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Yasuhiro MATSUI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1906-1914
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1915-1917
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1917-1918
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1918-1919
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1919-1920
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1920-1921
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1922-1949
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages 1950-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 10 Pages Cover3-
    Published: October 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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