SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 109 , Issue 3
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Tsuneaki AKASAKA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 325-363,489-49
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Ulus-i Juji (the "Golden Horde"), over which descendants of Joci (Juji. Ciηγiz qaγan's eldest son) reigned, was situated on the "Dast-i Qipcaq" steppe in the northwest of Inner Eurasia. At first, the Ulus consisted of three nomadic fiefs: the center, the left wing, and the right wing. Early in the 14th century, during the reigns of Toqto'a and Ozbeg xan, this organization was changed to just two wings: the right (western) and left (eastern). The leader of the right wing was the chieftain of the whole Ulus. According to some general surveys of Central Asian history, from the middle of 14th through the 15th century, in the eastern part of Dast-i Qipcaq (territory of the Ulus left wing), a new nomadic group called "Ozbegs" was formed after the collaspe of the "Golden Horde", and founded an independent state under the rule of Abu al-Xayr xan, a descendant of Siban, Joci's fifth son. However, a part of the "Ozbegs" separated from Abu al-Xayr xan's state, and became the Qazaqs. In the study of the "Nomadic Ozbegs", the relationship between the name "Ozbegs" and Ozbeg xan has been one of the problems which has not yet been solved. Now, many scholars who specialize in the field think that there is no relation, because the "Ozbegs" were formed in the eastern part of Dast-i Qipcaq, the left wing of the Ulus-i Juci, while Ozbeg xan was a ruler of the right wing. However, this opinion is incorrect, for Ozbeg xan was the chieftain of the whole Ulus. According to the source in which the "Golden Horde" was consisted of two wings, the right wing is also called "Ozbeg". The "Ozbegs" were named after Ozbeg xan. After Islamization at the time of Ozbeg xan, "Ozbeg" became the general term for the whole Ulus-i Juci.
    Download PDF (2544K)
  • Mariko SAKURAI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 364-366
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (345K)
  • Ei MURAKAMI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 367-392,488-48
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since the Song Period, Minnan 〓南, that is, the southern part of Fujian 福建 Province, had been an exporter of goods through such port cities as Quanzhou 泉州 and Amoy, the centers of trade in the East China Sea and South China Sea. Many people also emigrated to Taiwan and Southeast Asia from Minnan. So Minnanren 〓南人 played an important role in the commerce of East China Sea and South China Sea spheres. In Modern Minnan, especially from the end of the 19^<th> to th beginning of the 20^<th> century, a great change occurred owing to a decrease in the export of products from Amoy, the Japanese acquisition of Taiwan and a great increase in emigration from Minnan to Southeast Asia. However, this change has not been studied sufficiently. This article focuses on Amoy during the Late Qing Period and investigates the trade structure there as the trade center of Minnan from the late Ming Period on. During the latter half of 19^<th> century, a part of Minnan, of which Zhangzhou 〓州 Prefecture was the main part, was the hinterland of Amoy; and the economic sphere composed of this hinterland and Taiwan was formed with Amoy as the center. This sphere was tied to North China by the sugar-soybean trade and to Central China by the sugar-cotton trade, and it maintained trade relations with Southeast Asia as in the past. However, in spite of the global expansion of trade from late 19^<th> century and the intensification of competition among producing districts, the products exported from Amoy did not improve in quality. Therefore, the export of products such as tea and sugar declined. After the Japanese acquisition of Taiwan, improvements in transportation brought about expansion in the tea trade in Jilong 基隆 and a decline in the tea trade in Amoy. On the other hand, Japanese customs duties caused the junk trade to decline. As a result, Taiwan was integrated into the economic sphere of Japan and removed from that of Amoy. Consequently, the economic sphere of Amoy collapsed from the aspect of the distribution of goods ; but its trade structure including Chinese coastal ports and Southeast Asia was maintained and strengthened by remittances from Overseas Chinese, making up for an excess of export products in Amoy. Amoy became the center newly formed in Minnan through the network of remittances from Overseas Chinese.
    Download PDF (2545K)
  • Shun'ichi WATANABE
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 393-414,487-48
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is well known that in 1887 the opinion of Boissonade, who was a foreign legal adviser to the Japanese Government, played a decisive role in stopping treaty revisions proposed by Inoue Kaoru, then Minister for Foreign Affairs. The main point of his opinion against the revisions was that appointment of foreign judges would lower Japan to as humiliating a position as Egypt in the world. Such shocking words from the acknowledged scholar had great influence on Japanese society, not only among the people but in the Government, as vehement objection was raised against the treaty revisions. As a result, the revisions were postponed, and Inoue Kaoru resigned. However, there is decisive evidence that Boissonade held an affirmative opinion concerning foreign judges. It was actually Inoue Kowashi, who was thought to merely convey the opinion of Boissonade, who insisted that the appointment of foreign judges would place Japan the same humiliating position as Egypt. Inoue Kowashi thus pretended that the opinion was Boissonade's. It is thus clear that he altered the Boissonade's original opinion. Close scrutiny of the "Boissonade Opinion" reveals that there are two completely different opinions in it. One is strong opposition to the treaty revisions as humiliating and dangerous, demanding annulment of the new treaty. The other is a rather moderate objection to some legal questions in the revisions, and asks for some amendments to the new treaty. The strong opposition should be accorded entirely to the opinion of Inoue Kowashi. Therefore the moderate objection is thought to be the original Boissonade opinion. So, what is generally known as "Boissonade's Opinion" should be virtually "Inoue Kowashi's Opinion."
    Download PDF (2065K)
  • Hiroshige TSUCHIDA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 415-437,486
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article studies the number of military officers among Imperial Diet members and their influence in prewar Japan. The first half explores the number of officer MPs on the basis of biographical dictionaries edited by the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors. The author finds that 1) their number was not very large, except during World War II ; 2) their number among members of the House of Representatives increased after the fourteenth general election (1920) ; 3) many generals and admirals were made barons after the Russo-Japanese War, and some of these were elected as a member of the House of Peers. The second half of the article analyzes the activities of officer MPs after the year 1920. They did share common interests with the military authorities as servicemen ; however, a conflict of interest arose between ex-servicemen and active-servicemen. Therefore, they were not always loyal supporters of the military authorities. In conclusion, officer MPs had considerable influence as military specialists, representatives of ex-servicemen and supporters of the military authorities in the Diet despite their position as a minority. It was often the case that they were detrimental to parliamentary government due to their anti-liberal and anti-party government tendencies.
    Download PDF (2236K)
  • Yukio ITO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 438-447
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (971K)
  • Takeshi ABE, Hiroshi MITANI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 447-450
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (402K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 450-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 451-452
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 453-454
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (244K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 454-455
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (248K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 456-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (136K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 457-458
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (254K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 458-459
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (240K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 459-460
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (234K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 461-485
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1859K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages 486-490
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (258K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages App1-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (44K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 3 Pages Cover3-
    Published: March 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (33K)
feedback
Top