SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 109 , Issue 6
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages Cover1-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages Cover2-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (29K)
  • Nobuko MAEDA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1085-1120,1258-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Education in nineteenth century France is considered a notable source of inevitable conflict between the State and the Church ; yet, historians have not sufficiently examined what constitues the State. Under the July Monarchy, the Universite, which had been established as the corps exclusively charged with public instruction and education throughout France, played its role in public administration as an overseer of education. Therefore, in the dialogue of conflict between State and Church, the Universite has been regarded as the State in the battle for supremacy in the educational field. The purpose of this paper is to show one aspect in the process of the reconstruction of the State, analyzing how the Universite and the State (Etat) were imagined by contemporaries : rulers Catholics and the universitaires. In particular, the focus is on their speeches regarding the dispute on the issue of liberty in secondary education, a field of primary concern for the Universite. A major problem that arose in this debate was the autonomy of the Universite ; in other words, the double characteristic of the Universite : the largely autonomous corporation and public administration. One party claimed the Universite was the educational arm of the state (Etat enseignant), the other considered the Universite as a privileged corporation. However, even among the people who regarded the Universite as an arm of the state, there existed different concepts of who should ideally represent this Etat enseignant. Members of the government, such as Francois Guizot, emphasized the authority of the government, whereas the universitaires (Ⅴictor Cousin and the teaching corps) claimed their right to govern the Universites. From these differences, diverse images of the state emerged. Among the teaching corps, there was a demand for the in dependence of the teachers. In the hierarchical Universite, members of the Conseil royal de l'Instruction publique, such as Cousin, had deprived the teachers of their rights and liberties, especially freedom of thought. Therefore the teachers began to claim both their independence and an autonomous Universite.
    Download PDF (2637K)
  • Osamu IGARASHI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1121-1142,1257-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In early medieval times, penance took on two forms : public and private, corresponding to how widely a certain sin was known to people. The synodal courts of the carolingian period represented one form of public penance. The main purpose of this essay is to illuminate the context in which public penance functioned during the Carolingian period. The revival of public penance was, in the view of this paper, one of the most important outcomes of the Carolingian theocracy. The author examines this form of penance for this period, because it has been very underestimated by historians to date. Public penance included not only strictly religious penances, but also sanctions invoked by both secular and ecclesiastical authorities, since there was the idea that both secular and ecclesiastical authorities should suppress crime and maintain the public order. Public penance is seldom mentioned in the penitentials, but we find much mention of it in the capitularies, episcopal decrees and conciliar acts. Through studying public penance, we can learn the basic ideas about preservation of public law and order during this period.
    Download PDF (2128K)
  • Shinya KUSUMI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1143-1164,1256-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    There are only a few studies written about the Choshu War at the end of the Tokugawa period from the view point of political history. The War finally deprived the Bakufu of its influence, and should be recognized as an important event in the political process between 1864 and 1866. It has been generally understood as a war between the Bakufu and Choshu, but one of the major purposes was to punish Choshu as traitors to the imperial court in Kyoto. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the war as a political affair involving the court, the Bakufu and the clans. In this paper the author analyzes the process of Shogun Tokugawa Iemochi's departure from Edo on June 16, 1865 in order to attack Choshu, for the purpose of viewing the war as the result of contradiction and opposition in the form of government at that time. He conculdes that the Shogun's departure was created by political conflict among the court, the Bakufu and the clans, and also had another purpose to hold a meeting between the Shogun and the Emperor in Kyoto. It was Choshu that legitimized that Shogun'sdeparture. On the other hand, the Hitotsubashi, Aizu and Kuwana clans, which promoted political cooperation between the court and the Bakufu, thought that a meeting between the Shogun and the Emperor would be effective and urgent. They persuaded the court to approve the Shogun's departure meeting with the Emperor in Kyoto. The policy toward the ChoShu would be decided by the form of government. It would also produce a great effect on the Bakufu and the form of government.
    Download PDF (2180K)
  • Atsuko KATO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1165-1188,1255-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The film law, implemented on October 1,1939 aimed at controlling the industry under the exigencies of the war. The main purpose of the law was to qualitatively enhance film art, and not to censor artistic expression. Through a critical analysis of the diary of Mikio Tatebayashi, a staff member of the Home Ministry's Bureau of Police Affairs, this essay demonstrates the intentions held by the creatorsof the film law, and the process in which it developed. Prior to the passage of the film law, the market dominance of the major motion picture company Toho had severely affected the domestic motion picture scene, leading to serious conflicts among motion picture companies. At the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, the Bureau of Police Affairs began to monitor the social influence of films, and altered its policy from negative control based on censorship to a "positive" policy for ethnic cultivation. The Bureau drafted the film law for the purposes of controlling the growth of the film industry, covering areas diverse as production, distribution,and exhibition. All of these were thought to have led to reckless overproduction. The decision to "guide" production rather than censor was considered to be more effective in order to raise the level of films. At the stage of legislation, the eventual aim was to favour the Bureau side, and facilitate the selection of programs during the process of control and distribution of products on the basis of constitutional improvement of the motion picture industry. During the process of deliberation by the Legislative Bureau, minor corrections were made after the generated inquiry regarding the function of the film law. This is interpreted as treatment independentfrom any police activities, which had influenced many facets up to that time. But however, parliamentary deliberations judged the film law to authorize excess supervision over film production, thus the film law was subjected to severe criticism. From the inception of the film law to the end of the war, no real qualitative enhancement of film production was accomplished. Continuing defects and contradictions in the film law prove that the legislative attempts to improve and rationalize the motion picture industry did not provide a conductive atmosphere for higher production levels.
    Download PDF (2307K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1188-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (53K)
  • Kazue NARUTA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1189-1196
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (774K)
  • Kenzo MORI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1196-1203
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (740K)
  • Isamu SHIMADA
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1203-1209
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (622K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1209-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (47K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1209-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (47K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1210-1212
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (356K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1212-1213
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1213-1214
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (255K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1214-1215
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (270K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1215-1216
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (271K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1216-1217
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1217-1219
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (345K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1220-1253
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2406K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 1254-1258
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (262K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages App1-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (93K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages Cover3-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages Cover4-
    Published: June 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (39K)
feedback
Top