SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 109 , Issue 8
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages Cover1-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages Cover2-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Hidetaro INOUE
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1433-1466,1606
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    In Egypt under the Roman Empire, people used επιθηκη for the transfer and payment of money. When it was difficult to pay in cash, for example when the payee was not present, Egyptians could send money by επιθηκη without moving the coins. However, little is known about what επιθηκη was and how it worked, because there remain only four examples of it. So, since Preisigke's work, no study has treated it as the main subject. Nevertheless, επιθηκη is important for the understanding of the nature of the Roman economy. For the spread of transactions on credit can be thought as reflecting the sophistication of Rome's monetary economy. The author discusses first the relation of επιθηκη to the banking system, and reaches the conclusion that banks had nothing to do with επιθηκη. He then searches how it worked, and concludes that επιθηκη was sent by the issuer to the payee, and then handed over to the payer. By committing payment to a thirdparty, επιθηκη functioned like a bill of exchange. There is even a possibility that both the issuing and the paying of επιθηκη was committed to third persons who enjoyed more trust than the clients themselves. Therefore, even retail merchants could use επιθηκη. Finally, the author proposes the idea that επιθηκη performed a function that had once been performed by banks.
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  • Tamiko FUJIMOTO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1467-1492,1605-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The burgus(Lat.)=bourg(Fr.)mentioned frequently in medieval texts of northwest France was a new settlement grafted in a nucleus of the existing one. The diversity of its from does not permit us to qualify it globally as either urban or rural. The term burgensis=bourgeois appeared originally in the meaning of inhabitant of this new wettlement. In recent years, bourg and bourgeois have been studied from the point of view of feudal development. In Normandy, there developed a tenure called burgagium=bourgage, which, generally thought to be an indicator of bourg/bourgeois, gave rise to L.Musset's skillful formula of the inseparable trinity of burgus/burgensis/burgagium. Nevertheless, two facts oblige us to reconsider this view. First, the earliest mention of burgagium is dated a century later than that of burgus/burgensis. Secondly, the propagation of bourgage was limited to Normandy. Beyond the Channel, the burgus=borough in the contemporary English texts is a settlement generally more urban than the French bourg. Here also, it has often been said that the burgagium=burgage was a tenure peculiar to borough. However, the earliest mention of burgagium concerns settlements not qualified as burgus. Moreover, it is very interesting that the appearance of burgagium in English documents was slightly earlier than in Normandy. This study is founded on a criticism of the rather loose conventional methodology, which tends to regard all tenures somewhat privileged as bourgage/burgage. To this end, the author attempts to trace the appearance and the diffusion of bourgage/burgage, by relying exclusively on the term burgagium in the documentation. Considering Normandy and England at the same time, her findings confirm for tboth regions a substantial discordance between the geographical or chronological distribution of the burgagium and of burgus/burgensis. The term burgagium was created first in northeast England, during the period of the systematic settlement of Normans under colonisation into this frontier area. It designated globally privileges that the inhabitants in the old great boroughs had progressively obtained. The intention was to grant them to recent settlements which needed immigrants ; the burgagium served as a device to attract new inhabitants. In the following stage, the burgagium was introduced into Normandy ; it was applied not to the great towns from the early Middle Ages, but to developing settlements, like in Ingland. In addition, the propagation of burgagium in both the regions can be interpreted as a phenomenon indicating the integration of social structure in the "Anglo-Norman Realm."
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  • Kumiko SAITO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1492-1518,1604-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    During the reign of Selim I(1512-1520), the Ottoman Empire conquered the Diyarbakir region, which was an important area including major routes linked to Anatolia and Northern Syria, and a border area between Ottoman and Safavid territories. Most scholars have taken great interest over the years in the politicohistorical developments of the Ottoman conquest of the Diyarbakir lands. This paper, however, high-lights the social developments during the conquest of the Diyarbakir region by utilizing primary Ottoman and Diyarbakir sources. The man behind the conquest was Kurd-born Idris Bidlisi, who was in the service of Selim I, and the author of an Ottoman source. He was ordered to promote submission by the Kurdish amirs(chieftains)to Ottoman rule due to his knowledge of Kurdish affairs. Most of the amirs accepted Idris's counsel and allied themselves against their common enemy, the Safavids. Although amirs and some leaders of the Ruzeki tribe ruled Bidlis in a tribal society, as seen from the case of Bidlis, they did not come from any sub-tribes of Ruzeki as previously thought. Besides this fact, amirs had various kinds of relations with the neighboring Kurdish amirs from the mid-14th century. The reason for an alliance between the amirs and the Ottomans was the result of a hostile policy of contempt by the Safavids toward the amirs. The Ottomans, on the other hand, permitted the amirs to maintain rulership over their territories, land-holding and their traditional way of life, even under the suzerainty of the Ottomans.
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  • Kei YAMAZAKI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1518-1542,1603-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    The research done to date on the development of regional society during Japan's late premodern period has understood the process in terms of three stages ; 1)an initial stage in which political control was entrusted to local powers called dogo 土豪;2)the second stage marked by a system of autonomous village communities(kumiai-mura 組合村)and their representative headmen(sodai-shoya 惣代庄屋);and 3)a final stage in which powers from the outside strongly intervened in local politics through reforming the kumiai-mura and installing overseers. Here, focus has been placed on a slight hiatus between the first and second stages and emphasis put on the transformation of the sodai 惣代 administration system, while little attention has been given to the place of the establishment and development of ukeoinin 請負人(subcontractors)in the periodization scheme. In the present article, the author concentrates on this latter point in taking up the case of Bakufu territories in the province of Shinano 信濃. After the replacement of local powers who ruled the region as Bakufu-appointed functionaries by a more bureaucratic deputy system established during the seventeenth century, in the second stage, administrative headquarters called jinya 陣屋 were built throughout the region to facilitate supervision by officers(tedai 手代)dispatched by provincial functionaries. The author holds that the objective of the order abolishing shoya village headmen in 1713 was to eliminate special privileges held by locally based deputies since medieval times, in favor of ukeoinin who headed jinya-controlled villages. While these sub-contractors formed a continuum with locally-based deputies, they had no special privilege or power to prevent the loss of their positions through the removal and transfer of jinya to some other jurisdiction. During the middle of the eighteenth century, these ukeoinin were the ones who were made responsible for the work of local administration under the local daikan(goyo 御用)and administration of autonomous villages(gunchuyo 郡中用); however, as the so-called "democratization" of village administration extended to the local level, during the third stage, after administrative positions called sodai 惣代 were set up on the village and provincial district level, a system by which people in these positions could supervise ukeoinin came into being. Soon the duties of former gunchudai 郡中代 were assumed by the district sodai, and their appointment changed from inheritance to yearly appointments based on the revolving goyado 郷宿 system of lodging Bakufu officials. As a result of the research done in this article, it has become necessary to study the establishment and evolution of the gunchusodai system from the viewpoint of its relationship to ukeoinin.
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  • Kazuto HONGO
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1543-1549
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Takashi SUE
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1549-1555
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Akihiro MIYAZAKI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1555-1564
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1565-1566
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1566-1567
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (261K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1568-1569
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (263K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1569-1570
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (264K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1570-1571
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (251K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1571-1573
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (341K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1573-1574
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (232K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1574-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (135K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1575-1600
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (1846K)
  • Type: Article
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages 1601-1606
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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    Download PDF (303K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages App1-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages Cover3-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 109 Issue 8 Pages Cover4-
    Published: August 20, 2000
    Released: November 30, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (37K)
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