SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 111 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages Cover1-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages Cover2-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Izuru OHTA
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 445-480,587-58
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Zixinsuo 自新所 appeared in Suzhou 蘇州 city in the mid-eighteenth century. Being a sort of prison, it gradually spread to rural cities in the Jiangnan 江南 Delta. This paper examines the zixinsuo's functions and its relationship to the baojia 保甲 system to maintain public order. In the study of modern French history, correctional institutions have been widely studied since Michel Foucault published his most important work, `Surveiller et Punir--Naissance de la prison.' In the study of Ming-Qing history, a few attempts have been made to analyze prisons, but what seems to be lacking, however, is the analysis of the relationship between prisons and regional social order in their loctions. This paper investigates this relationship. The author makes the following five observations. (1) Zixinsuo was a prison that confined convicted thieves given light sentences. (2) The convicts in zixinsuo were assigned labor, such as manufacturing straw sandals, so that they could earn a living after being released. (3) The "naissance" of zixinsuo is closely related to the baojia system. Thieves were supposed to return to regional society and be incorporated into the baojia system after finishing their sentences. However, they were not welcomed into the baojia system. Consequently, the Qing dynasty was forced to establish the zixinsuo as homes for ex-convicts. (4) Zixinsuo also functioned as training facilities for ex-convicts, where they could go through work training and psychological reform programs. They even could have their tatoos removed so that they would become more acceptable in regional society. (5) Finally, in the social background to the rise of zixinsuo, it should be pointed out that criminal activities had increased in the Jiangnan Delta during the mid-eighteenth century in the wake of the commercialization and urbanization of the region.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 480-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Koji IISAKA
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 481-504,586-58
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Curatores rei publicae were officials appointed by the Roman imperial government to Italian cities to supervise local fiscal administration from the second century onward. Such appointments have been regarded as the largest scale intervention in municipal self-government throughout the history of the Principate. Historians currently hold the following views concerning this situation (1) curatores were employed only temporarily ; and (2) the range of their activities was confined to those duties assigned by the emperor (i.e., fiscal supervision). They conclude that curatores neither intervened in nor restricted municipal self-government. The problem here is that the research to date only focuses on the activities of curatores during their incumbencies and thus does not properly evaluate the significance of their appointments. M.Saltori has suggested that the above-mentioned views should be revised to (1)' curatores were active longer than the current research assumes ; and (2)' in practice, their activities sometimes went beyond the range of municipal public finance, extending to those of municipal patrons providing fiscal assistance. The argument presented here is that curatores fiscally assisted municipalities, and that such activity was not necessarily an extension of their formal duties, and thus should be understood as additional tasks of municipal patrons. Such curatores strengthened their relations with municipalities through prolonged incumbency or successive appointments and thereby were sometimes selected as municipal patrons during after their incumbencies. Consequently, it could be concluded that the appointment of curatores meant the introduction of municipal patrons to assist in local fiscal affairs of Italiancities under the Principate.
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  • Kazunari NAITO
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 505-528,584-58
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A lot of research has already accumulated on the 1912-13 political crisis and Katsura Taro's new political party. On the other hand, there is no much research into the movement in the House of Peers. This article aims to make clear movement in the House of Peers, the political process in the House, and also understand the meaning of the Katsura's new political party in parliamentary government history. Part 1 clarifies the political transition from Katsura Taro's resignation in 1911 to the day his formed his new party. As to why he formed his new party, first discord with Yamagata Aritomo began to make it possible for him to lose his own political base altogether. Secondly, the new political party aimed at the establishment of a huge power base across both Houses of the Diet. Part 2 clarifies the relationship between the Katsura's new political party and the House of Peers, by likening it to the change occuring in the two influential groups in the House : the Saiwai Club and the Kenkyukai. An intimate relationship between the new political party and those groups had been maintained throughout Katsura's second cabinet, but it grew worse gradually afterwards. When the Katsura's third cabinet was organized, Oura Kanetake, a leading member at the Saiwai Club and as a Cabinet minister, and his comrades made a request to members of those groups to participate in Katsura's new party. However, Hirata Tosuke, a leading member opposed such a move tendency towards. Finally, nonparticipation became dominate among them over a strong participation at first. In the Kenkyukai, Hirata's request also ended in failure because of counterinfluence mainly formed among younger members. The House of Peers did not participate in the new political party, which shows the permeation of personal views of "hree and unbiased policy" in that aristocratic chamber. However, it seems that the later changes in the House of Peers were caused by the gradual progress of the above movements, like political disagreement between executives of the Saiwai Club and growing power of young members of the Kenkyunkai.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 529-537
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 537-543
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (639K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 544-545
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (213K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 545-546
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (238K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 547-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (45K)
  • Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 548-583
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Article
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages 584-587
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages App1-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (107K)
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages Cover3-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
  • Type: Cover
    2002 Volume 111 Issue 4 Pages Cover4-
    Published: April 20, 2002
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (31K)
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