SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
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Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages Cover1-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages Cover2-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Koetsu FUJIYA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1659-1688
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    This paper considers the Ping-Liu-Li Uprising of 1906 from the viewpoint of popular culture surrounding the Mid-autumn festival, and focuses on the following three points. First, the Ping-Liu-Li Uprising consisted of many phases, and rumors about the uprising which appeared in the Mid-autumn festival played an important role. The second point is the ideals and world view of the people were contained in the rumors. The third point concerns the connection between those ideals and world view and several leaders of the Tong Meng Hui and the Hong River Society. The Ping-Liu-Li Uprising started with an appeal from the Tong Meng Hui to the secret societies, which resulted in the organization of the Hong River Society. However, the main factor which led to the uprising was popular ideals and world view as reflected in Mid-autumn festival : the idea of the present world coming to an end, the appearance of a savior, and the realization of a peaceful world. It was believed that a savior would come to earth on the night of the Mid-autumn festival and save the people. Ultimately, this meant the return of the fundamental world. It has been said that the Ping-Liu-Li Uprising was raised by leaders of the Tong Meng Hui and the Hong River Society. However, the ideals and world view of the people also played an important role in this uprising. This phenomenon was to be repeated in the Revolution of 1911.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1688-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Makoto TACHIBANA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1689-1720
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    In Outer Mongolia, two governments, the Autonomous Government of Outer Mongolia under Bogd khaan and the Provisional people's Government under Mongolian People's Party, existed side by side in 1921. However, in the research on the "History of the Revolution", the former has been defined as "Ungern's Puppet" or completely ignored, leading to the latter dominating the reseach. This article intends to relativize the two governments, focusing on the former and demonstrating its political situation in Mongolia at that time. After the abolition of autonomy in 1919, movements to revive it rose in Outer Mongolia. When Ungern Sternberg attacked Urga, the Mongols supported him and the Autonomous Government was revived. The reason why the Provisional People's Government was formed immediately after the Autonomous Government's revival was because of the influence exerted by Soviet Russia. The People's Party denounced the Autonomous Government for being ruled by Ungern in an attempt,to justify the establishment of its own new government. However, the Autonomous Government continued its activities and did not lose its faculties as a "government" after Ungern's rout. In addition, the Mongolian People's Party, which had defeated Ungern and entered Urga, demanded that the seals of the ministries of Autonomous Government be handed over. However, this contradition reflected the position of both governments in Mongolia, namely, the Autonomous Government was regarded as the legitimate one at that time, while the Provisional People's Government was not generally recognized. The transfer of seals aimed to refute the legitimacy of the Autonomous Government. This article points out that the Autonomous Government was regarded as the legitimate one, and held the key position in Mongolia from it's abolishment to the establishment of the people's Government. The reason why the conventional research on "the Mongolian Revolution" does not deal sufficiently with Autonomous Government is to conceal the contradictions surrounding the establishment of the People's Government. In recent years "re-examination" is prevailing and this article is part of creating a new view of "the Mongolian Revolution".
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1720-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Shinobu MATSUDA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1721-1743
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present article is an examination of the various political forces involved in the reforms carried out in 1922 regarding agricultural associations. The original Agricultural Association Act was passed in 1899 with the intent of disseminating agricultural technology and set up agricultural associations integrated on the prefectural, county (gun 郡) and village levels. However, despite its achievements in improving agricultural enterprises, the law contained no provisions making membership in such associations or payment of dues to them compulsory. Proposals were made to grant these two rights from leaders of the associations ; however, the officials of the Agriculture and Commerce Ministry refused to act upon them, and adopted a plan to strengthen the associations for the purpose of controlling rural Japan in a more comprehensive manner, in the face of increasing tenancy disputes and relatively disadvantageous agricultural conditions. Instead of making association membership compulsory for all local farmers, measures were taken to chose association leaders by electoral vote to allow both tenants and independent farmers more voice in running the associations, in the hope that they would become more actively involved in their affairs. With regard to the issue of mandatory payment of dues, the Ministry laid down the condition that the associations be operated as public institutions. At the time of the reform act gun administrative districts were in the process of being phased out and the burden of gun level agricultural improvement projects was handed over to gun level agricultural associations. In addition, regarding the political parties at the time, who showed no opposition concerning agricultural policy and played no active role in the passage of the reform bill, Hara Kei of the Seiyukai was in favor of strengthening gun level associations as one part of phasing out gun administrative districts. The 1922 reform bill ended up functioning to squash demands to abolish gun level associations on the part of local towns and villages, who were opposed to interference from higher level associations and paying association dues.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1743-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Hajime KANEKO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1744-1751
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • Takeo HASEGAWA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1752-1762
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1763-1764
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1764-1765
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1765-1766
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (267K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1766-1767
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (286K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1767-1768
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
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    Download PDF (252K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1768-1769
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (230K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1769-1770
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (251K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1770-1771
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (253K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1772-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (153K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1800-1797
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (196K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages 1796-1773
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1594K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages App1-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages App2-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages App3-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (35K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages Cover3-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 10 Pages Cover4-
    Published: October 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (34K)
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