SHIGAKU ZASSHI
Online ISSN : 2424-2616
Print ISSN : 0018-2478
ISSN-L : 0018-2478
Volume 113 , Issue 11
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages Cover1-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages Cover2-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (28K)
  • Daisuke IGARASHI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1801-1836
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this article, the author deals with the al-Diwan al-Mufrad, a special financial bureau founded by al-Zahir Barquq, the first sultan of the Circassian Mamluks. This bureau took charge of supplying the Sultan's Mamluk corps with monthly salaries and other materials. The focus is on examining the historical development of this Diwan from its establishment till its fiscal bankruptcy, as well as the political and social factors behind it. The al-Diwan al-Mufrad was founded in order to maintain the Sultan's Mamluk corps, to fortify the Sultan's position in the midst of political chaos and solve financial difficulties caused by problems in the land system ; that is, the loss of agricultural land from the state treasury from the time of the late Bahri Mamluk period. Subsequentry, previously dysfunctional state fiscal affairs were reorganized, and this Diwan played a crucial part in the new organization by obtaining a vast amount of agricultural land as its own resources. Nevertheless, it was not an "innovation" that could reinforce the Sultan's autocratic power by increasing the Sultan's mamluks, for a great number of non-Sultan mamluks came to be registered as recipients of the Diwan. We can say that not only Sultans but also other amirs and mamluks had interests in this Diwan for that reason. Increasing the importance and the failure of the al-Diwdn al-Mufrad occurred under a situation were results of the collapse of state landholding due to political and socio-economic reasons, which caused changes in the traditional Mamluk state formation established through al-Rawk al-Nasiri and based on the distribution of iqta's and revenues from agricultural lands under the state's direct control. In conclusion, the al-Diwdn al-Mufrad was an institution for maintaining the mamluk-recruit system and Mamluk domination by means of accumulating agricultural lands, the main financial resource of the state that was gradually decreasing. At the same time, the traditional Mamluk regime, the structure of state and society based of the Iqta' system had also been undergoing a radical transformation during the period under consideration.
    Download PDF (2491K)
  • Tamon SUZUKI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1837-1865
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It was in February 1944 that then Prime Minister Tojo Hideki (also Minister of the Army) and Naval Minister Shimada Shigetaro were jointly appointed as Chiefs of Staff of the Army and Navy, respectively. Such a breach of tradition in separating the civil and military administration of the armed forces presented an opportunity for the veteran Naval officers who wanted a quick end to the War to publicly criticize Tojo, criticism that is thought to have been one cause of the Cabinet's downfall. The research to date argues that the joint appointments were made for two reasons : one to overcome opposition between civil ministers and the military chiefs of staff, the other to fight the peace movement being conducted by the naval officers. While it would not be surprising that the peace movement that would be begin in earnest the following year was already brewing, what is puzzling is why Shimada would receive the joint appointment when no opposition existed between his ministry and the naval supreme command. Did Tojo and Shimada really begin to feel the threat posed by the peacenik naval officers? Or could there be some other political reason besides the peace movement that the conventional research has overlooked? In this article, the author focuses on opposition that arose within both the naval ranks and the supreme command, looking at such issues as the conversion of the navy into an air force, unification of the military supreme commands and the supreme command system itself, in order to show that the joint appointments were made to form a system of army-navy cooperation within the supreme command and avoid a change of government. Traditionally, both the Army and the Navy had their own air forces, which were funded on an equal basis. The Army and Naval chiefs of staff both insisted on more emphasis being put on their respective air forces in realizing the slim possibility of winning the War. Since both sides were convinced that funding allocation rates would determine the outcome of the War, the supreme command could not come to a decision about the military strength of the two branches. This resource mobilization problem then began to reverberate within the government and developed into an issue threatening the continuation of the present cabinet. The Emperor, who had given Tojo his vote of confidence, began to hint about a change of government and thus was not able to reach a political compromise over the opposition between the Army and Navy over military strategy. Consequently, the upper ranks of the Army, which was aimed at defending the home front and veteran naval officers who aimed at reviving the War came to odds over where the war front should be positioned. It was this opposition that led directly to the downfall of the Tojo Cabinet.
    Download PDF (2037K)
  • Kazuyuki TSURUMA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1866-1868
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (319K)
  • Shiro ONODERA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1869-1891
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    According to Henrietta Harrison, the identification of the symbols of the Chinese Nationalist Party with those of the Chinese nation was central to the success of the Northern 'Expedition. This expedition, in turn, can be seen in part as a victory for the new symbols, particularly images of Sun Yatsen as a national martyr and the national flag : "White Sun in a Blue Sky over a Crimson Ground" (WSBSCG). Although Sun's iconographic image had generally been recognized as an important national symbol from his death in 1925, the WSBSCG flag has been overlooked. This paper examines how the Nanjing Nationalist government established this new flag as a national symbol, from both the stand-points of legal and ideological regulations. The Nationalist government enacted various laws about the national flag "The National Emblem and National Flag of the Republic of China Act" (1928) aimed at the unification of the criteria for national flags "Procedures for Manufacturing and Using the Party Flags and the National Flags" (1931) and "Regulations for Manufacturing and Using the Party Flags and the National Flags" (1934) defined criteria for how to make and display these flags. "Procedures for Manufacturing and Selling the Party Flags and the National Flags" (1935) restricted the manufacture of party flags and national flags only to certified makers and aimed at bringing the management of flags under party control. Moreover, as ideological regulations, the Nationalist Party published an official government pamphlet "The Party Flag and the National Flag" (1929), which aimed to advertise its ideology, justify its government, and mobilize the people in its cause. To attain these goals, the pamphlet criticized the conventional Five Color national flag and connected the design of the WSBSCG flag to the official ideology of the Nationalist Party, the Three Principles of the People and the Party-State system. This was advertised in the popular lecture halls of every city, and national flag ceremonies held on anniversaries of the Revolution. Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek) lectured on themes with the national flag and started the Rise-and-Fall National Flag part of the New Life Movement in 1934. The movement aimed to establish his status as the legitimate successor of Sun Yatsen, and mobilize the people politically into a better integrate nation. Although this reorganization of the national symbol aimed at justifying a party-state system peculiar to the Nationalist government, it was also influenced by the contemporaneous Soviet Union and Fascist regimes rising up during the 1930s.
    Download PDF (2099K)
  • Eishi YAMAMOTO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1892-1900
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (889K)
  • Yoshiyuki FUNADA
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1900-1910
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1040K)
  • Takeshi KIDO
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1910-1918
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (886K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1918-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (60K)
  • Eihachiro SAKAI
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1919-1921
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (352K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1922-1923
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (265K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1924-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (154K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1924-1926
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (359K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1926-1927
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (243K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1927-1928
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (249K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1928-1929
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (252K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1930-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (136K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1931-1932
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (262K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1932-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (74K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1966-1963
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (254K)
  • Type: Article
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages 1962-1933
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (2153K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages App1-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages App2-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages App3-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (40K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages Cover3-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (46K)
  • Type: Cover
    2004 Volume 113 Issue 11 Pages Cover4-
    Published: November 20, 2004
    Released: December 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (46K)
feedback
Top